Agnieszka Ławniczak, Janina Zbierska, Sylwia Machula and Adam Choiński
Fluvial lakes affect on phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the Samica Stęszewska River
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of shallow lakes on reactive, total phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the river water and analyse the effect of changes in water retention in lake on nutrient concentrations in river waters. The study was carried out in the Samica Steszewska River. This is lowland river, which flows through two polymictic lakes. The study site is located in the Wielkopolska Lowland, Central-west Poland. Water samples were collected at depths of 0.5 m below the water surface. Reactive, total phosphorus and potassium were analysed monthly by standard methods. The study was carried out from January to December 1999-2002 (period with high water retention), 2005-2008 (period with low water retention), at four control points. Sites were located at the inflow and outflow of the Samica Stęszewska River into and out of Niepruszewskie and Tomickie Lakes. From 1974 to 2002, Lake Niepruszewskie was regulated at its outlet by a weir. In 2002, the water level was reduced. Changes of water retention in Niepruszewskie Lake influenced water discharge of the Samica Stęszewska River. The results indicate that changes in water retention have significantly influenced water quality in the river, particularly total and reactive phosphorus concentrations; however, this influence was not observed in respect to potassium concentrations. Nutrient concentrations in river strongly depend on water quality of the lake ecosystem and their buffering capacity. Additionally, by improving water quality, increased oxygen concentrations, and decreasing dissolved nutrient concentrations, as well as increased amplitude of water level fluctuations in lakes may increase P-fixation rates in outlet streams.
Anna Budka, Dariusz Kayzer, Janina Zbierska, Klaudia Borowiak, Danuta Barałkiewicz and Anetta Hanć
Praca prezentuje rezultaty biomonitoringu ołowiu w zróżnicowanych warunkach środowiskowych. Do oceny zawartości poziomu ołowiu wykorzystano rośliny życicy wielokwiatowej. Dodatkowo w liściach oznaczono zawartość chlorofilu (a+b, a oraz b) w świeżej masie. Rośliny eksponowano w okresie wegetacyjnym roku 2011 na pięciu stanowiskach badawczych różniących się parametrami środowiskowymi oraz w warunkach kontrolnych. Rośliny eksponowano w 28-dniowych okresach badawczych. Wyniki zawartości Pb oraz poziomów chlorofili w różnych miejscach ekspozycyjnych oraz seriach testowano z zastosowaniem wielowymiarowej analizy wariancji. Wykazano zmienność zawartości Pb oraz poziomów wszystkich form chlorofilu w różnych miejscach ekspozycyjnych i seriach. Najniższe zawartości ołowiu oraz najwyższe poziomy wszystkich form chlorofilu zaobserwowano na stanowisku podmiejskim. W pracy wykazano przydatność analizy zmiennych kanonicznych do graficznej prezentacji wyników biomonitoringu powietrza.
Anna Budka, Dariusz Kayzer, Klaudia Borowiak, Janina Zbierska, Agnieszka Wolna-Maruwka, Anita Schroeter-Zakrzewska and Anna Chlebowska
Tropospheric ozone is one of the most reactive air pollutants, which causes visible injuries, as well as biomass and yield losses. The negative effect of ozone is cumulative during the growing season; hence crops are the most sensitive plants. Visible symptoms and biomass losses can cause economic losses. Tobacco plants have been recognized as one of the best bioindicators, but data on the cumulative effect of ozone on this species are limited. Results of an experiment with ozone-sensitive tobacco plants grown on sites varying in ozone concentration are presented in this paper. Two indices were used for data presentation of visible leaf injury degree. Higher solar radiation was the main cause of higher ozone concentration at the rural site. Higher tropospheric ozone concentrations were noted in 2010 in comparison to 2011, which was reflected in visible
leaf injury. Canonical variate analysis did not reveal highly significant differences between sites, however, differences were observed in certain investigation periods. Moreover, higher leaf injury was noted at the rural site at the end of the experiment in both experimental years. This indicates the cumulative effect of ozone during the growing season. However, higher injury variability was noted at the urban site, even though lower ozone concentrations were noted there. Lower variability of injury at the rural site might suggest lack of influence of particulate matter and occurrence of higher injury even though lower ozone concentrations occurred. Better detection of ozone injury was shown by the first index based on three mean values.
Klaudia Borowiak, Janina Zbierska, Anna Budka and Dariusz Kayzer
Three plant species were assessed in this study - ozone-sensitive and -resistant tobacco, ozone-sensitive petunia and bean. Plants were exposed to ambient air conditions for several weeks in two sites differing in tropospheric ozone concentrations in the growing season of 2009. Every week chlorophyll contents were analysed. Cumulative ozone effects on the chlorophyll content in relation to other meteorological parameters were evaluated using principal component analysis, while the relation between certain days of measurements of the plants were analysed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results revealed variability between plant species response. However, some similarities were noted. Positive relations of all chlorophyll forms to cumulative ozone concentration (AOT 40) were found for all the plant species that were examined. The chlorophyll b/a ratio revealed an opposite position to ozone concentration only in the ozone-resistant tobacco cultivar. In all the plant species the highest average chlorophyll content was noted after the 7th day of the experiment. Afterwards, the plants usually revealed various responses. Ozone-sensitive tobacco revealed decrease of chlorophyll content, and after few weeks of decline again an increase was observed. Probably, due to the accommodation for the stress factor. While during first three weeks relatively high levels of chlorophyll contents were noted in ozone-resistant tobacco. Petunia revealed a slow decrease of chlorophyll content and the lowest values at the end of the experiment. A comparison between the plant species revealed the highest level of chlorophyll contents in ozone-resistant tobacco.
Dariusz Kayzer, Anna Budka, Klaudia Borowiak, Janina Zbierska and Marta Lisiak
Tropospheric ozone affects plant growth and the yield of main pasture species all around the world. Experiments are usually performed in fully controlled conditions; the number of investigations in ambient air conditions is still limited. Moreover, most investigations of the effect of ozone on white clover biomass production consider one series after the other, including a period without leaves. Hence, based on the recommendations, additional series are proposed and studied here. The responses of sensitive and resistant white clover clones are presented and compared using multivariate analysis of variance and profile analysis. The canonical variate analysis used here makes it possible to present the profile comparison of dry matter content of white clover graphically in Euclidean space. The investigations revealed a difference in response between clones and the necessity of using the additional series.