The research was carried out on a permanent fertilization field in the area of the Rzeszow Foothills Region, with Haplic Luvisols formed from loess. The following plants were cultivated in a 4-year cropping system: pasture sunflower, winter wheat, potatoes and spring barley. Various mineral fertilizers NPK + Mg constans and various mineral fertilization NPK + Mg Ca constans were applied in the experiment. Liming was applied in the form of CaO (at the dose of 2.86 t Ca × ha.1). The experiment included 14 fertilizer objects, in 4 replications according to the method of random sub-blocks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied in statistic processing for a double classification: liming (A) and mineral fertilization (B) . independently of liming. As a result of the testing, it was found that liming raised the content of Cr in Ap and Bt horizons. Mineral fertilization raised the content of Co and Cr in Ap and Bt horizons and Cd and Pb in Bt horizon. The combined effect of liming and mineral fertilization decreased the content of Ni and Co in Ap horizon and Cd in Bt horizon and raised the content of Cr in Ap and Bt horizons and Pb in Bt horizon.
The aim of the study was to determine some physicochemical and chemical properties of post-mining soils reclaimed in different directions, after completed sulfur exploitation by means of the borehole (Frash) method. The study was conducted in 2013 in the former Sulfur Mine „Jeziórko” located on the Tarnobrzeg Plain between Tarnobrzeg and Stalowa Wola cities (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, south Poland). It covered an area of land reclaimed as the arable or forest land. The most important problems connected with sulfur exploitation was the occurrence of a layer of solid sulfur which was previously removed. During the reclamation process, embankments and excavations were leveled through replenishing large amounts of ground, post-flotation lime, mineral fertilizers, and sewage sludge. Moreover, studies upon degraded and non-reclaimed area (by 2013) were also carried out. Examined land was characterized by granulometric composition of sands, loamy sands, and sandy loams. Re-leveling of degraded land using post-flotation lime contributed to lower levels of acidification of reclaimed soil surface. The highest contents of organic carbon and total nitrogen were found in the surface layers of the soils studied. Content of available potassium ranged from very low to average. The soils were characterized by a high content of available magnesium in the surface layers of the profiles (maximum 71.8 mg·kg−1 in soil reclaimed as forest land), while below the Mg content was usually low. Contents of individual exchangeable cations could be lined up in a following decreasing sequence: Ca2+>Na+>K+>Mg2+ Referring to the topsoil, reclaimed soils were characterized by more favorable properties (pH close to neutral, lower acidity, higher sorption capacity, higher organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available forms of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium concentrations) as compared to non-reclaimed soil.
The aim of the study was to investigate the basic physicochemical and chemical properties of six soil profiles located in the surrounding of the Magura National Park (S Poland). The type of agricultural use and terrain relief were the main criteria for choosing the soil profiles. The research identified the following types or sub-types of soils: Eutric Gleysols, Dystric Cambisols, Eutric Cambisols, Gleyic Luvisols. The analyzed soils were characterized by particle size distribution of a silty clay or silt. They were usually strongly acidified as evidenced by low pH (in 1M KCl, values ranged from 3.8 to 5.8), high values of hydrolytic acidity (from 0.8 up to 10 cmol(+)·kg-1) and exchangeable acidity (from 0.05 to 4.05 cmol(+)·kg-1), as well as remarkable concentration of exchangeable aluminum (from 0 to 3.96 cmol(+)·kg-1). The organic carbon content in studied profiles did not exceed (except from gley soil in profile ) 30 g·kg-1 and it decreased along with the depth to several g·kg-1 in parent rock. These soils were characterized by not very high content of total nitrogen (from 0.3 to 9.39 g·kg-1) and low available phosphorus concentration (from 3.5 to 90.3 mg P2O5·kg-1). Contents of available potassium (from 82 to 570 mg K2O·kg-1) and magnesium (from 33 to 412 mg Mg·kg-1) allow for classifying the profiles studied as soils moderately or highly abundant in K and Mg. The highest levels of biogenic elements were determined in surface horizons. Studied soils were characterized by high total sorption capacity (T) - from 7.04 to 63.4 cmol(+)·kg-1. Sum of base cations (S) reached values from 3.01 to 61.2 cmol(+)·kg-1, which resulted in high base saturation (V) (maximum over 96%). The base saturations in profiles of the soils increased along with depth.