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Open access

Maja Kolšek-šušteršič, Andreja Beg Krasnič, Verica Mioč, Metka Paragi and Janez Rifel

Abstract

Introduction

In Slovenia, there is little data available on pneumococcal vaccination rates and no data on asymptomatic NPCR and serotypes in the population of nursing home residents in comparison to the elderly living in domestic environment, therefore the goal was to gain these data.

Methods

A cross sectional epidemiological study was performed. Nasopharyngeal swabs from 151 nursing home residents, 150 elderly living in domestic environment, and 38 adults less than 65 years old were collected twice (in two consecutive years). The swabs were analysed for pneumococcal identification and serotyping. Patient data were collected from medical files and medical history.

Results

No statistically significant differences in NPCR were seen between compared groups in two consecutive years. An average NPCR in two consecutive years in nursing home residents was 1.45%, in the elderly living in domestic environment 0.85%, and in adults less than 65 years old 7.05%. Serotypes identified among nursing home residents were 6B and 9N, among the group of elderly living in domestic environment, 6A and among adults less than 65 years old, 35F, 18C and 3. Pneumococcal vaccination rates were low (3.3% in nursing home residents, 6% in the elderly from domestic environment and 0% in the group of adults less than 65 years old).

Conclusions

Our data suggests that NPCR and the proportion of people vaccinated with pneumococcal vaccine among the elderly are low. We identified different serotypes in all groups, only one person was a chronic carrier (serotype 35F).

Open access

Eva Gorup, Janez Rifel and Marija Petek šter

Abstract

Introduction

Anticholinergic burden in older adults has been correlated with cognitive decline, delirium, dizziness and confusion, falls and hospitalisations. Nevertheless, anticholinergic-acting medications remain commonly prescribed in up to a third of older adults in primary care population. Our aim was to study the anticholinergic burden in older adults in Slovenian ambulatory setting and explore the most commonly involved medications which could be avoided by the physicians.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 general practices in Slovenia as part of a larger trial. Data on prescribed medications were collected for randomly chosen adults of over 65 years of age visiting general practice, who were taking at least one regularly prescribed medication. Anticholinergic burden was calculated using Duran’s scale and Drug Burden Index.

Results

Altogether, 622 patients were included, 356 (57.2%) female, average age of 77.2 (±6.2), with an average of 5.6 medications. At least one anticholinergic medication was present in 78 (12.5 %) patients. More than half (N=41, 52.6%) of anticholinergic prescriptions were psychotropic medications. Most common individual medications were diazepam (N=10, 1.6%), quetiapine (N=9, 1.4%) and ranitidine (N=8, 1.3%).

Conclusions

Though the prevalence of anticholinergic medications was low compared to international research, the most commonly registered anticholinergic prescriptions were medications that should be avoided according to guidelines of elderly prescriptions. It would be probably clinically feasible to further decrease the anticholinergic burden of older adults in Slovenian primary care setting by avoiding or replacing these medications with safer alternatives.