Cisplatin is used in cancer therapy, but its side effects and acquired resistance to cisplatin have led to the synthesis and evaluation of new platinum compounds. Recently, the synthesized platinum compound trans-[PtCl2(3-Hmpy)2] (3-Hmpy = 3-hydroxymethylpyridine) (compound 2) showed a considerable cytotoxic and antitumour effectiveness. To improve compound 2 cytotoxicity in vitro and antitumour effectiveness in vivo, electroporation was used as drug delivery approach to increase membrane permeability (electrochemotherapy).
Materials and methods
In vitro, survival of sarcoma cells with different intrinsic sensitivity to cisplatin (TBLCl2 sensitive, TBLCl2Pt resistant and SA-1 moderately sensitive) was determined using a clonogenic assay after treatment with compound 2 or cisplatin electrochemotherapy. In vivo, the antitumour effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with compound 2 or cisplatin was evaluated using a tumour growth delay assay. In addition, platinum in the serum, tumours and platinum bound to the DNA in the cells were performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
In vitro, cell survival after treatment with compound 2 electrochemotherapy was significantly decreased in all tested sarcoma cells with different intrinsic sensitivity to cisplatin (TBLCl2 sensitive, TBLCl2Pt resistant and SA-1 moderately sensitive). However, this effect was less pronounced compared to cisplatin. Interestingly, the enhancement factor (5-fold) of compound 2 cytotoxicity was equal in cisplatin-sensitive TBLCl2 and cisplatin-resistant TBLCl2Pt cells. In vivo, the growth delay of subcutaneous tumours after treatment with compound 2 electrochemotherapy was lower compared to cisplatin. The highest antitumour effectiveness after cisplatin or compound 2 electrochemotherapy was obtained in TBLCl2 tumours, resulting in 67% and 11% of tumour cures, respectively. Compound 2 induced significantly smaller loss of animal body weight compared to cisplatin. Furthermore, platinum amounts in tumours after compound 2 or cisplatin electrochemotherapy were approximately 2-fold higher compared to the drug treatment only, and the same increase of platinum bound to DNA was observed.
The obtained results in vitro and in vivo suggest compound 2 as a potential antitumour agent in electrochemotherapy.
During carbon steel manufacturing, large amounts of electric arc furnace (EAF) slag are generated. EAF slag, if properly treated and processed into aggregate, is an alternative source of high-quality material, which can substitute the use of natural aggregates in most demanding applications in the construction sector, mostly for wearing asphalt courses. In this screening process of high-quality aggregates, a side material with grain size 0/32 mm is also produced, which can be used as an aggregate for unbound layers in road construction. In this study, the environmental impacts of slag aggregate (fraction 0/32 mm) were evaluated in mixed natural/slag aggregates. Different mixtures of natural/slag aggregates were prepared from aged (28 days) and fresh slag, and their environmental impacts were evaluated using leaching tests. It was shown that among the elements, chromium (Cr) was leached from some mixed aggregates in quantities that exceeded the criterion for inert waste. The data from the present investigation revealed that mixed aggregates, prepared from aged slag (fraction 0/32 mm) and natural stone in the ratio 10/90, are environmentally acceptable and can be safely used in unbound materials for road construction.
Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) induces pulsed electric field, which presumably increases membrane permeabilization of the exposed cells, similar to the conventional electroporation. Thus, contactless PEMF could represent a promising approach for drug delivery.
Materials and methods
Noninvasive electroporation was performed by magnetic field pulse generator connected to an applicator consisting of round coil. Subcutaneous mouse B16F10 melanoma tumors were treated with intravenously injection of cisplatin (CDDP) (4 mg/kg), PEMF (480 bipolar pulses, at frequency of 80 Hz, pulse duration of 340 μs) or with the combination of both therapies (electrochemotherapy − PEMF + CDDP). Antitumor effectiveness of treatments was evaluated by tumor growth delay assay. In addition, the platinum (Pt) uptake in tumors and serum, as well as Pt bound to the DNA in the cells and Pt in the extracellular fraction were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
The antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with CDDP mediated by PEMF was comparable to the conventional electrochemotherapy with CDDP, with the induction of 2.3 days and 3.0 days tumor growth delay, respectively. The exposure of tumors to PEMF only, had no effect on tumor growth, as well as the injection of CDDP only. The antitumor effect in combined treatment was related to increased drug uptake into the electroporated tumor cells, demonstrated by increased amount of Pt bound to the DNA. Approximately 2-fold increase in cellular uptake of Pt was measured.
The obtained results in mouse melanoma model in vivo demonstrate the possible use of PEMF induced electroporation for biomedical applications, such as electrochemotherapy. The main advantages of electroporation mediated by PEMF are contactless and painless application, as well as effective electroporation compared to conventional electroporation.
Background. Electrochemotherapy is a tumour ablation modality, based on electroporation of the cell membrane, allowing non-permeant anticancer drugs to enter the cell, thus augmenting their cytotoxicity by orders of magnitude. In preclinical studies, bleomycin and cisplatin proved to be the most suitable for clinical use. Intravenous administration of cisplatin for electrochemotherapy is still not widely accepted in the clinics, presumably due to its lower antitumor effectiveness, but adjuvant therapy by immunomodulatory or vascular-targeting agents could provide a way for its potentiation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to explore the possibility of adjuvant tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) therapy to potentiate antitumor effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration in murine sarcoma.
Materials and methods. In vivo study was designed to evaluate the effect of TNF-α applied before or after the electrochemotherapy and to evaluate the effect of adjuvant TNF-α on electrochemotherapy with different cisplatin doses.
Results. A synergistic interaction between TNF-α and electrochemotherapy was observed. Administration of TNF-α before the electrochemotherapy resulted in longer tumour growth delay and increased tumour curability, and was significantly more effective than TNF-α administration after the electrochemotherapy. Tumour analysis revealed increased platinum content in tumours, TNF-α induced blood vessel damage and increased tumour necrosis after combination of TNF-α and electrochemotherapy, indicating an anti-vascular action of TNF-α. In addition, immunomodulatory effect might have contributed to curability rate of the tumours.
Conclusion. Adjuvant intratumoural TNF-α therapy synergistically contributes to electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin administration. Due to its potentiation at all doses of cisplatin, the combined treatment is predicted to be effective also in tumours, where the drug concentration is suboptimal or in bigger tumours, where electrochemotherapy with intravenous cisplatin is not expected to be sufficiently effective.