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  • Author: Jana Stávková x
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Application of the Institute of Income Redistribution in the Form of Social Transfers in EU Countries

Abstract

The reduction in the number of households living at risk of poverty is a common objective of EU countries but the social policy of each member state is different. This paper provides an overview of components of social transfers and their share in total household incomes in EU countries. The aim of the paper is to assess the effectiveness of the social systems of each on the basis of the number of households at risk of poverty determined before and after the payment of social benefits. Four segments of EU countries were identified in cluster analysis according to their approach to social transfer settings using primary data from EU-SILC survey. The combination of high share of social benefits and low share of old age pensions proves to be better in the fight against poverty. The relationship between an economic performance and a functioning social policy system appears in EU countries.

Open access
Income (In)Justice in the Czech Republic

Abstract

The present paper deals with the income situation of households in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011. The subject of observation is disposable income per equalized member. We attempt to assess income inequality based on a Gini coefficient and Lorenz curve. Another point of observation is the development of the poverty level. The poverty gap is assessed using a Sen index. Special attention is paid to groups of households according to economic activity (employed, self-employed, pensioner, unemployed, other). Using Scheffe’s method of contrast, specific pairs of demonstrable differences between levels of economic activity are detected. The poverty of individual groups is assessed based on poverty level and risk-of-poverty index. The performed analyses showed that the total incomes of households within the given period were increasing, even though the year-on-year increments were gradually decreasing. The most significant increase was observed in the incomes of unemployed people, the least significant increase in the incomes of self-employed people. Social policy in the Czech Republic does mitigate poverty; however, it does not prevent the unfair development of incomes for various groups of households.

Open access
Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

Abstract

This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

Open access