The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union is reflected in the development of agricultural production in Slovakia. The development of livestock production faced significant changes reflected in its overall decrease. The decrease in the level of agricultural production in Slovakia between 2002 and 2010 is shown by several indicators assessed in this paper. Its main aim is to highlight differences in Slovak agriculture at the level of LAU I, which are districts of Slovakia, according to the selected indicators of agricultural production between 2002 and 2010. We analyse the development of regional differences in Slovak agriculture that have widened under the influence of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. The development of selected indicators of agricultural production was analysed using the change index, which best represents differences in the development of agriculture in the Slovak regions.
The purpose of this study was to theoretically and practically investigate the thermo-technical properties of two bedding surface materials under real farm conditions during the hot summer period. The study was focused on the research of cubicles with water mattresses and straw bedding for dairy cows. The results of thermal-technical calculations showed that straw belongs to the category of warm floors, the thermal effusivity value of cubicle with straw is b = 173.55 W·s1/2·m−2·K−1; the heat transfer coefficient is U = 0.36 W·m−2·K−1. Water mattress belongs to the category of cold floors with the thermal effusivity value b = 572.46 W·s1/2·m−2·K−1 and the heat transfer coefficient U = 4.504 W·m−2·K−1. On the basis of calculations, the results showed that U was 12.5 higher for water mattresses than for straw, and b was 3.3 times higher for water mattresses than for straw. Based on thermographic measurements under field conditions of dairy farm, it was observed that the surface temperature of the water mattresses after one hour of lying was lower by 4.95 ±1.88 °C in comparison to chopped straw. In practice, suitability of the material structure of water mattresses was verified on the basis of physical properties for summer period.
The impacts of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union on Slovak agriculture since the accession of Slovakia to the European Union, are discussed in this paper. Structural changes that were made are reflected in the developmental trends of various agricultural areas. In this paper, the changes in agricultural land use and its categories, in particular landscape types, as well as changes in the numbers and structure of the labour force, changes in the organizational structure of agricultural holdings, the development of cropland areas of the most important crops in crop production, and changes in the number of livestock, are discussed. This analysis also focuses on Slovakia’s position in terms of overall agricultural production within the European Union member states.
The paper points at the origin and development of ecological farming in Slovakia from 1991 to 2015. As the positive aspect of this period can be considered the increasing area of ecologically farmed agricultural land, as well as increasing number of farmers and a slight increase in the number of processors of ecological production. The increased interest of farmers in ecological farming on land occurred mainly after Slovakia's accession to the EU. The next part of the paper is dedicated to the regional disparities in ecological production at NUTS III (Slovak regions). To analyze spatial disparities at the regional level, we used the most widely applied statistical methods - standard deviation and coefficient of variation. The largest localization of ecological production is in northern Slovakia - in Žilina and Prešov region, in central Slovakia in Banská Bystrica region. In these regions, there are higher acreage of ecological farmland. Despite the slight increase of processors of ecological produce, they still lack in Slovakia. Processors of ecological products operate mainly in the regions of western and eastern Slovakia and north of the country. With the lack of ecological production, there is relatively underdeveloped distribution of products of ecological production and its lower consumption in the domestic market. Offers of bio-products is relatively low and weak competitive environment does not create the pressure to still reduce still high prices of ecological production.
The V4 countries went through a transformation of their entire economies, including the agricultural sector, in the 1990s. Each of these countries approached the transformation of agriculture differently, but later the V4 countries’ approach to agricultural development was unified by the EU's common agricultural policy. The aim of the paper was to compare the development of the production (sown area and hectare yield) of selected most commonly cultivated crops in Slovak and Czech regions (NUTS 3) in the period between 2004 and 2017. The development of production in these two countries was also evaluated against the trends of V4 countries. Based on these analyses, common and specific agriculture development trends in V4 countries were revealed. A chronological average was used to evaluate the average values of the monitored indicators in the period from 2004 to 2017 in Slovak and Czech regions. To express the development of the given indicators between 2004 and 2017, the change index was used and visualised cartographically. Regression analysis was used to show the development trends of agricultural production in the V4 countries. In general, the agricultural sectors in the V4 countries show similar characteristics with similar trends, and the average hectare yield has a modest growing trend. In terms of the structure of the cultivated plants, the size of the cultivated areas, the volume of production and the average hectare yields, there have been considerable changes to crop farming in Slovak and Czech regions. The study showed that the changes in the agrarian sector after the year 2004 conditioned by the entry of Czechia and Slovakia into the European Union were reflected in a decrease in crop production and an increase in regional disparities. From the point of view of the production indicator expressing the hectare yield of crops, Czechia achieves better indicator values than does Slovakia.