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Open access

Juraj Harmatha, Zdeněk Zídek, Eva Kmoníčkova and Jan Šmidrkal

Immunobiological properties of selected natural and chemically modified phenylpropanoids

Effects of natural and structurally transformed lignans compared with stilbenes or stilbenoids on production of nitric oxide (NO) triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tested under in vitro conditions using murine resident peritoneal macrophages, are reviewed. Relation between the molecular structure and immunobiological activity was investigated, and implication of substituents, double bond stereochemistry, or cyclic attachments (double bond geometry fixation) was assessed. The focus was on lignans and stilbenoids because they were originally selected for a joint project of common interest to phytochemical and pharmacological investigation and because they represent well interesting and universally attractive groups of polyphenols with a feasible potential for therapeutic or nutraceutic utilization.

Open access

Radek Martinek, Michal Kelnar, Jan Vanus, Petr Bilik and Jan Zidek

Abstract

The authors of this article deals with the implementation of a combination of techniques of the fuzzy system and artificial intelligence in the application area of non-linear noise and interference suppression. This structure used is called an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This system finds practical use mainly in audio telephone (mobile) communication in a noisy environment (transport, production halls, sports matches, etc). Experimental methods based on the two-input adaptive noise cancellation concept was clearly outlined. Within the experiments carried out, the authors created, based on the ANFIS structure, a comprehensive system for adaptive suppression of unwanted background interference that occurs in audio communication and degrades the audio signal. The system designed has been tested on real voice signals. This article presents the investigation and comparison amongst three distinct approaches to noise cancellation in speech; they are LMS (least mean squares) and RLS (recursive least squares) adaptive filtering and ANFIS. A careful review of literatures indicated the importance of non-linear adaptive algorithms over linear ones in noise cancellation. It was concluded that the ANFIS approach had the overall best performance as it efficiently cancelled noise even in highly noise-degraded speech. Results were drawn from the successful experimentation, subjective-based tests were used to analyse their comparative performance while objective tests were used to validate them. Implementation of algorithms was experimentally carried out in Matlab to justify the claims and determine their relative performances.