Alena Nohavová and Jan Slavík
Marketa Julinova, Jan Kupec, Roman Slavik and Maria Vaskova
A synthetic polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP - E 1201) primarily finds applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries due to its resistance and zero toxicity to organisms. After ingestion, the substance passes through the organism unchanged. Consequently, it enters the systems of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) without decomposing biologically during the waste treatment process, nor does it attach (through sorption) to particles of activated sludge to any significant extent, therefore, it passes through the system of a WWTP, which may cause the substance to accumulate in the natural environment. For this reason the paper investigates the potential to initiate aerobic biodegradation of PVP in the presence of activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The following agents were selected as the initiators of the biodegradation process - co-substrates: acrylamide, N-acethylphenylalanine and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, a substance with a similar structure to PVP monomer. The biodegradability of PVP in the presence of co-substrates was evaluated on the basis of biological oxygen demand (BOD) as determined via a MicroOxymax O2/CO2/CH4 respirometer. The total substrate concentration in the suspension equaled 400 mg·dm-3, with the ratio between PVP and the cosubstrate being 1:1, while the concentration of the dry activated sludge was 500 mg·dm-3. Even though there was no occurrence of a significant increase in the biodegradation of PVP alone in the presence of a co-substrate, acrylamide appeared to be the most effective type of co-substrate. Nevertheless, a recorded decrease in the slope of biodegradation curves over time may indicate that a process of primary decomposition was underway, which involves the production of metabolites that inhibit activated sludge microorganisms. The resulting products are not identified at this stage of experimentation.
Július Árvay, Ľuboš Harangozo, Ján Tomáš, Marek Slávik and Tomáš Tóth
The aim of this work is to show the importance of monitoring the hygiene quality evaluation of soil profile in the Slovak Republic area. In the past, when no emphasis was laid on ecology, as it is nowadays, there was an uncontrolled emission of pollutants from different fields of anthropogenic activities. The consequences are manifested even today, and immediate and expensive solutions are much needed.
In this work, the results of the research on the degree of heavy metal contamination in the soil profile as well as plant availability have been presented, which depended on the soil reaction in the 'Štiavnica Hills' and 'Žitný ostrov' areas. The choice of these areas is related to specific areas mentioned above that are characteristic of anthropogenic activity, besides factors such as natural (geochemical) contamination and intensive agricultural activity.
All the soil samples were analysed to give a changeable soil reaction. Analyses on heavy metal in the aqua regia extract (total content) that is, risky elements in their mobile form contents in the NH4NO3 c = 1 mol • dm-3 leach and humus content according Tjurin were conducted.
Lenka Slavíková, Ralf-Uwe Syrbe, Jan Slavík and Astrid Berens
Recently, the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)s in environmental governance has been widely investigated, especially regarding the issue of mandatory public participation in policy-making within a European context. This paper aims to redirect scientific attention from their pure participation to their field actions, i.e., to the role they play in actual natural resource management, especially at the local level, and reframe local environmental NGO roles and positions based on the criteria for scale and influence. More specifically, this paper seeks to identify factors that promote NGOs as effective complements in the protection of state biodiversity and stresses local impacts of different governance schemes.
Determining factors were investigated through a series of in-depth case studies undertaken in the Czech-German border region of the eastern Krušné hory Mts. (Erzgebirge, Ore Mts.). Rather than a quantitatively oriented survey among NGOs, this study focused primarily on a specific territory and, subsequently, on the identification of relevant actor performance (including NGO representatives) within this territory. The method applied for comparison was the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework (IAD Framework). This design enabled a comparison of different social practices in the homogeneous ecosystem present on both sides of the border and captured the influence of specific social and historical cross-border features on environmental NGO performance.