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  • Author: Jan Radosław Kamiński x
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Abstract

The object of the research is a technological process and technical means of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects. The subject of the research consists of regularities and methods of execution of the process of cutting woody shrubs at melioration objects by a multirotor mower with trapezoidal knives. The aim of the research is to increase efficiency of cutting shrubs at melioration objects by applying a multi-rotor mower with trapezoidal knives. We have obtained analy tical dependences in order to determine the angle of diversion of a knife from the radial position during contact with the stem, and to calculate the reaction in the joint “knife-fixing bolt” depending on the parameters of a knife and rotor, and the distance from the centre of the knife fixing bolt to the point of contact of a knife and stem, which provides minimal impact load on the knife fixing bolt during cutting woody shrubs. We have also developed a mathematical model of the process of cutting shrubs by a multi-rotor mover with trapezoidal knives, and methods of determination of the main parameters and regimes of work of the mower cutting apparatus for cutting shrubs at melioration objects, which contain a monogram, based on the use of theoretical-experimental dependences.

Abstract

Crawler tractor with specific loads on the hitch loses traction abilities during cornering and causes intensive destruction of the surface layer of soil. This phenomenon may be limited if relevantly selected parameters of the cornering mechanisms were applied. The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the cornering mechanism parameters on the crawler tractor maneuver ability. The object of the research was a planetary cornering mechanism which enables fluent change of the cornering radius through the change of the rotational speed of planetary gears drive by pneumatic engines. Relations of the turning radius to the slip of the spinning and overleaping crawler at the speed of 7 km·h-1 without the load on the hitch and with the load of 40 kN were defined. The average values of drift and the turning radius as a function of drive speed from 0 to 2.5 m·s−1 on the moist soil μ=0.4 and dry soil μ=0.8 were determined. Relations of the turning radius to the pressure of oil pump oil, to the drive speed and to the load on the hitch were set forth. The research proved that when using the hydraulic pump with the regulated expense the working pressure of oil may be maximally reduced to 30 MPa, the power of the pump may be reduced by twofold, the possibility of turning in difficult field conditions within the scope of the required speed may be enabled. To ensure the required turning radius of the crawler tractor it is recommended to install the pump with the efficiency of 33 cm3·rot−1 and a regulated hydraulic motor with the capacity of 56 сm3·rot−1 with a power regulation within 2.0-2.5, at the same time maximum pressure of liquid will not exceed 35 MPa and the determined power of the hydraulic gear will amount to 52.6 kW.

Abstract

The article includes analysis of expert system application possibilities in the environment of production processes control. Such concepts as artificial intelligence, expert system, intellectual factor, state space were used. The object of the research consisted of the mechanism of controlling an enterprise (manager). These mechanisms were analysed from the point of view of state space. The graph method was used to visualize information presentation. Analysis of control processes of an enterprise was carried out by determination of their state space. The concept of state space itself is completed with numerous measurement values (parameters) under influence of which the process of task solution takes place. Moreover, the concept of static and dynamic elements of state space of the control system is applied. It was shown that dynamic elements enable the quality presentation of space, which without including other restrictions leads to extension of its impact, which confirms that a given system has an intelligent factor.

Abstract

The objective of the paper was intensification of the process of threshing and grain separation by a rasp-bar threshing mechanism of a combine harvester with a differentiate concave; substantiation of a regular-style design and differentiate concave parameters as well as threshing and separating mechanism operation modes. Theoretical research has been conducted based on laws of motion, experimental investigation – in accordance with methods devised on the basis of conventional methodologies. Standard computing methods as well as Microsoft Excel and Mathcad application packages have been used for processing experimental data. Measuring and recording equipment has been used in the research process. Experimental investigation has been carried out on specially devised experimental assemblies. The research has enabled: to substantiate the design-manufacturing process of the threshing and separating mechanism with a differentiate concave; to establish analytical dependencies to determine the area of typical influence zones of a threshing drum and concave on threshing mass; to ascertain the regularity of stem deformation under the influence of different forces regulated by changing the distance between concave transverse slats; to figure out the regression equation enabling finding optimal process variables for a threshing and separating mechanism with a differentiate concave. The scientific novelty of the engineering solutions is confirmed by a patent of the Republic of Belarus for the utility model № 6335 « Tresking mechanism». The results of theoretical and experimental research have been used in developing design documentation for the production of a differentiate concave for combine harvesters PA «Gomselmash».

Abstract

Short review of grassland restoration techniques has been made with emphasis on the application of newly developed wide-strip overseeding aggregate. Machines currently available on the market are not suitable for all types of soil and grassland conditions. Vredo seeder is useless on muck soils, while Moore aggregate requires herbicide application. Therefore it is not to be applied in organic farming. Construction designated in ITP Kłudzienko (wide-strip overseeder) is a very economical and effective, possible to be used also on muck soils and without assistance of any chemicals. Operation of the machine consists of ‘milling’ of wide (about 10 cm) strips of sod and overseeding of mineral fertilizers and seeds of grasses, legumes and herbs. Cultivator for soil ‘milling’ strips is driven by the tractor PTO. By changing the spacing of strips, an oversown area can be resized from 20% to 40%. The effect of overseeding, evaluated next year exposed the increase of hay yield from 0.8 to 1.2 t · ha-1 of dry matter in the first cut. Such innovative construction is particularly important in dairy farms which are in the need of the best quality feed.