The concept of market absorption and carrying capacity in economic terms are adequate to the real estate market, even though the legislator uses only the concept of the absorptive capacity of the area in the planning process. The aim of the study is to discuss the concept of carrying capacity and absorption of the real estate market in economic and planning terms as well as the application of conclusions from literature studies and determination of capacity and absorption on a specific selected local market.
In the empirical part, a model of demand for space for detached housing development (market absorption) was built as a function of price, income and expenses for complementary goods.
At the same time, as a complementary good for the purchase of land for the construction of a house, the purchase of a flat and purchase of a real estate built-up with a detached house were accepted. On the other hand, reference was made to absorption understood adequately to planning documents. It was discussed whether the concept, interpreted in two ways, leads to the absorption of the same area on the local market. The analysis uses data from the Register of Prices and Values of Starosty County Price and Value Register, planning documents as well as data resources on statistics, and public information and own research.
The development of new areas is associated with costs that partly burden public budgets. One example of such costs is the necessity of purchasing land for the construction of public roads. Geoinformation can be used to forecast such costs. In the era of transformation, the land administration system and transition from traditional (raster) data to an electronic (vector) version opens new possibilities for the use of geoinformation. Modern systems must satisfy certain requirements set out by the recipient as well as by legislation, on both the European and national level. They must also be powered by expertise gained in accordance with good practice. In this case, a property appraiser is the source of such information.. The study presents the possibility of using the CommunityViz system for forecasting the financial consequences of adopting the local plan for the area Jagodno II in Wroclaw. The paper also presents the possibility of using the results of the calculations during public consultations.
The current system of spatial planning in Poland does not provide an effective and efficient tool for controlling planning decisions at a level higher than local. The result is an unrealistic approach to adopting development policies. Nowadays there is strong competition among local governments to attract investors, which results in excessive designation of investment areas and, consequently, an imbalance between supply and demand on the real estate market. An extremely important factor from the point of view of local authorities is also the financial burden on government budgets related to the implementation of the provisions of previously adopted policies. An improper spatial development policy can therefore generate costs without delivering the expected results, due to the lack of demand for the offered resources.
A step in the right direction in optimizing how the spatial policy process is shaped may include conducting analyses and forecasts to support the decision-making process. Such analyses are needed both in terms of the amount of areas designed for each type of land use as well as their spatial distribution. Our considerations are focused on the second aspect. Analysis of land use transformation potential can be used in spatial management by selecting areas most where land use is most likely to change. The paper presents the simplified mechanisms of such analyses which can be adopted by the use of cellular automata. The final potential of an area is affected by variables such as the neighborhood, accessibility and suitability. As a result of the integration of these variables, it is possible to determine land use transformation potential. These considerations relate to the MOLAND (Monitoring Land Use/Cover Dynamics) research project and works on the development of the Metronamica decision support system, conducted in Western Europe.
Jan Kazak, Jarosław Malczyk, David Garcia Castro and Szymon Szewrański
Strong links between the condition of the environment and the economy have recently resulted in a number of actions aiming to implement environmental considerations in economic calculations. This is accompanied by the development of the concept of ecosystem services, characterizing the benefits that the environment provides humankind with. The identification of these services is reflected in their economic values. Hence, the concept of the valuation of ecosystem services. Therefore, if the service provided by the environment takes on a financial value, we can consider it as income from the property containing the analyzed ecosystem. Of course, in order to speak in practice of the income approach in the valuation of such properties, there must be actual financial flow as income for the real estate owner. However, in the era of big economic changes and the implementation of a number of financial instruments (e.g., subsidies for a particular use of property, trade of CO2 emission rights), it seems reasonable to consider the possibility of property valuation by the valuation of ecosystem services.
A part of this research focused on a service of forest ecosystems service that is carbon sequestration. The selection was made due to the implementation of the climate policy at the European level and its association with the trade of CO2 emission rights. The analyses were performed for two test sites characterized by different determinants (composition of species in the tree stand, age of the stand, degree of compactness of the tree stand, etc.). The low level of difficulty of the test methods used enables non-experts (persons with no qualifications in forestry) to carry out valuations themselves. The research is a contribution to the debate on the possibility of accounting for carbon sequestration in forest property valuation based on the income approach, but the issue still requires clarification of certain elements.
Jan Kazak, Joost van Hoof, Małgorzata Świąder and Szymon Szewrański
Currently, one of the key challenges on a global scale is the issue of an ageing society. The UN predicts that the number of people aged 60 and over will double by 2050 and treble by 2100. In the coming years, the demand for real estate that addresses the specific needs of older people will increase both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore, two main questions arise: What are the architectural features of real estate required to accommodate for the needs of an ageing society? Which European Union countries seem to have the highest and lowest potential to create a segment of the real estate market focused on older people? This paper contains a research overview in the field of the built environment for older people and case studies of different policies established by public authorities from past decades. The potential for real estate for an ageing society in EU countries was determined on the basis of variables collected by the UNECE. The results also enable assumptions to be made on which factors may influence future development in this area. Due to global climate changes combined with the urbanization process and resulting deterioration of air quality, heat island effect or poor accessibility to open areas, the ageing society will have to face the problem of adapting to these new conditions. Therefore, the authors assume that this will have a significant impact on the relocation of this age group on the real estate market in the future. The conclusions of the research contribute to general discussion on new trends in the real estate market and the assessment of future investments in real estate.