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  • Author: Jan Kalembkiewicz x
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Eleonora Sočo and Jan Kalembkiewicz

Abstract

The study investigates chemical modifications of coal fly ash (FA) treated with HCl or NH4HCO3 or NaOH or Na2edta, based on the research conducted to examine the behaviour of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions adsorbed from water solution on treated fly ash. In laboratory tests, the equilibrium and kinetics were examined applying various temperatures (293 - 333 K) and pH (2 - 11) values. The maximum Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions adsorption capacity obtained at 293 K, pH 9 and mixing time 2 h from the Langmuir model can be grouped in the following order: FA-NaOH > FA-NH4HCO3 > FA > FA-Na2edta > FA-HCl. The morphology of fly ash grains was examined via small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and images of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption kinetics data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order rate model but showed a very poor fit for the pseudofirst order model. The intra-particle model also revealed that there are two separate stages in the sorption process, i.e. the external diffusion and the inter-particle diffusion. Thermodynamics parameters such as free energy, enthalpy and entropy were also determined. A laboratory test demonstrated that the modified coal fly ash worked well for the Cd(II) and Pb(II) ion uptake from polluted waters.

Open access

Dagmara Galas, Jan Kalembkiewicz and Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak

Abstract

Morphology, physicochemical properties, chemical composition of post-galvanized sewage sludge from Screw Factory in Łańcut, leachability and mobility of metals has been analyzed. The analyses with the use of scanning electron microscope with an adapter to perform chemical analysis of microsites (EDS) showed that the material is characterized by a high fragmentation and a predominant number of irregularly shaped grains. The sewage sludge is alkaline with a large loss of ignition (34.6%) and small bulk density (< 1 g/cm3). The EDS analyses evidenced presence of oxygen, silicon, calcium, chromium, iron and zinc in all examined areas, and presence of manganese and copper in selected areas indicating a non-uniform distribution of metals in the sewage sludge. Within one-stage mineralization and FAAS technique a predominant share of calcium, zinc and iron in terms of dry matter was recorded in the sewage sludge. The contents of Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mn, Ni and Pb in sewage sludge are below 1%. Evaluation of mobility and leaching of metals in sewage sludge was carried out by means of two parameters: accumulation coefficient of mobile fractions and leaching level related to the mass solubility of sewage sludge. The results indicate that the short-term or long-term storage of not inactivated post-galvanized sewage sludge can result in release of metals.

Open access

Jan Kalembkiewicz, Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak, Eleonora Soćo, Danuta Nowak and Irena Trojnar

Abstract

The atmospheric fallout over the Rzeszów town was investigated. Intensity of dustfall (quarterly periods, 2011.2012) and its physicochemical properties (acid-base character, solubility and sequential solubility, mobile fractions) were investigated. The intensity of dustfall was variable from 25 to 83 g·m.2 and depended on the season. Contents of metals in precipitation were diverse with quantities exceeding 1%: Fe, K, Ca, Na, in 0.1.1%: Mg, Zn, Na, Ca, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, and less than 0.1%: Cu, Bi, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb. It was found that the dustfall is a possible source of metals. The atmospheric fallout can enlarge a pool of metals in soils from 0.18% up to 80%.