Kinetics of the sorption of copper cations in Spirogyra sp. algae was analysed, together with the accompanying processes of hydrogen cations sorption and releasing to the solution the cations bonded in the algae: Na+, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+. It was established that, in a static system, at the fixed proportion of algae mass to the solution volume, these processes occur simultaneously, however presumably the quantity of the released salts influences the parameters of heterophase equilibrium of ion exchange. In the experiment conditions, the quantity of the released cations was nearly 10 times larger than the quantity of the sorbed cations. The equilibrium parameters, determined from the model of pseudo second order reaction, were compared with the parameters obtained after 30 min of the process duration, ie at relatively stable indications of measuring equipment. On the example of the sorbed copper, the difference is approximately 8%. It was confirmed that the solution conductivity is a good parameter for the estimation of the state close to equilibrium.
In the Faculty of Science (University of Hradec Králové) the innovative program in chemistry for the study specialization Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology was developed. The innovation of chemistry filed study has been focused especially on increase in competitiveness and in graduates employment. Design of innovation enables graduates applying for the position of experts in physical measurements and informatics and at the same time they expand their competence in the service of the physico-chemical instrumentation in industrial ecology. Because Faculty of Science is not equipped yet in expensive instrumentation for nuclear spectrometry, cross-border cooperation with the Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences (University of Opole) has been started. In the area of teaching about non-traditional energy sources the cross-border cooperation with the Department of Automation and Renewable Energy Sources, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czestochowa University of Technology) has been initiated. Well-developed system of cooperation with companies, which are equipped with the latest technology of environmental protection, was created. In the exchange system Polish students attended for practicing in these companies. The aim of the contribution is to describe one of the means of innovation of chemistry field study in the frame of bachelor study specialization oriented in physics and computer technology. We believe that the new approach will lead to increase in graduate competitiveness as well as to development of their motivation to study and better understanding of regulation principles of chemical processes and patterns.
Tightening of norms for air protection leads to a development of new and significantly more effective techniques for removing particulate matter, SOx and NOx from flue gas which originates from large solid fuel combustion. Recently, it has been found that combinations of these environmental technologies can also lead to the reduction of mercury emissions from coal power plants. Now the greatest attention is paid especially to the coal power plant in Opatovice nad Labem, close to Hradec Kralove. Its system for flue gas dedusting was replaced by a modern type of cloth fabric filter with the highest particle separation efficiency which belongs to the category of BAT. Using this technology, together with modernization of the desulphurisation device and increasing of nitrogen oxides removal efficiency, leads also to a reduction of mercury emissions from this power plant. The University of Hradec Kralove, the Opole University and EMPLA Hradec Kralove successfully cooperate in the field of toxic metals biomonitoring almost 20 years. In the Czech-Polish border region, comprehensive biomonitoring of mercury in bioindicators Xerocomus badius in 9 long-term monitored reference points is done. The values of mercury concentration measured in 2012 and 2016 were compared with values computed by a dispersion model SYMOS′97 (updated 2014). Thanks to modern methods of dedusting and desulphurisation, emissions of mercury from this large coal power plant are now smaller than before and that the downward trends continues. The results indicate that Xerocomus badius is a suitable bioindicator for a long-term monitoring of changes in mercury imissions in this forested border region. This finding is significant because it shows that this region is suitable for leisure, recreation, and rehabilitation.
The main objective of the “Guidelines for the development of agricultural biogas plants in Poland within 2010-2020”, is a construction of biogas plants processing agricultural biomass resources with suitable conditions in each municipality. In the Czech Republic produces about 6.5% of energy from renewable sources. Biogas plants give - contrary to solar and wind electricity stations - the stable performance throughout the whole year. Biomass should be a key source for achieving the Czech EU commitment to produce 13% of energy from renewable sources in 2020. The experience, where 317 Agricultural biogas plants are currently in operation, has shown that there are considerable problems with a proper location of newly designed agricultural biogas plants in the landscape. The Czech-Polish border area is mainly flat wooded recreation region. For these reasons, the Gaussian model SYMOS’97 (version 2013), adapted for odour dispersion modelling from large agricultural sources is supposed to be suitable for this area. It is appropriate for training of students. For these reasons, students from the University of Hradec Kralove and the University of Opole in the frame of their academic exchange and professional internships are acquainted with the technological principles of biogas plants and in environmental mathematical and statistical modelling of the spread of emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources. In this article we present methods for education on these professional areas.
Accurate high temporal resolution data is a very important source of information for understanding processes in the landscape. High temporal and spectral resolution data enable the monitoring of dynamic landscape processes. For this reason, since 2008 a receiving station for Metosat, NOAA and Envisat data has been installed at the Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Cartography, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague. The aim of this study is to analyse the spectral characteristics of vegetation using MERIS data in the Czech Republic. Spectral characteristics of vegetation were examined both by analysing changes in reflectivity as well as by utilising vegetation indices. Vegetation in forests and agricultural land was evaluated. The results present the spectral characteristics of selected associations of vegetation based on MERIS data and a discussion of the methods of multitemporal classification of land cover.
In the year 2016, passive biomonitoring studies were conducted in the forest areas of southern and north-eastern Poland: the Karkonosze Mountains (Kark), the Beskidy Mountains (Beskid), Borecka Forest (P. Bor), Knyszynska Forest (P. Kny), and Białowieza Forest (P. Bia). This study used bark from the tree, Betula pendula Roth. Samples were collected in spring (Sp), summer (Su), and autumn (Au). Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined for the samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry method with flame excitation (F-AAS). Based on the obtained results, the studied areas were ranked according to level of heavy-metal deposition: forests of southern Poland > forests of north-eastern Poland. Some seasonal changes in the concentrations of metals accumulated in bark were also indicated, which is directly related to their changing concentrations in the air during the calendar year, for instance, the winter heating season produces higher concentrations of heavy metals in the bark samples taken in spring. When deciding to do biomonitoring studies using bark, but also other biological materials, it is necessary to take into account the period in which the conducted research is done and the time when the samples are taken for analysis, because this will have a significant impact on the obtained results.
The fruiting bodies of fungi sprout from mycelium are capable of accumulating significant amounts of trace elements, both metals and metalloids. Content of these elements in fruiting bodies may exceed their concentration in the substrate where fungi develop. Among the elements the radioactive nuclides are also present. In this work health risk caused by increased radioactivity dose absorbed with Xerocomus badius bay bolete consumption was estimated. In analysis concentrations of radioactive isotopes 137Cs and 40K were taken into consideration. It was found that moderate ingestion of bay bolete does not create health risk due to increased radioactive substances intake. The amount of consumed mushrooms that could deliver the dose exceeding the safe one, is rather improbable in real life. Possible relationships between radioactive isotopes concentrations and concentrations of common alkali metals were investigated using methods designed for compositional data analysis. No clear relationships between 137Cs, Ca, K and Mg concentrations in samples of bay bolete were found and significant influence of outlying data points on statistical inference was noticed.
Passive biomonitoring using 210Pb was used in the paper to evaluate pollutant deposition. Well-developed epiphytic foliose lichens Hypogymnia physodes growing on spruce branches were used in the studies. The samples of mosses Pleurozium schreberi and soil (raw humus) were collected from the area around the tree from which the samples of lichens were collected. The studies have shown that it is possible to identify dust emission sources using a radioactive lead isotope (210Pb). The highest activity of 210Pb was observed in areas with increased deposition of other pollutants, such as Ni, Cd, Cu and Pb, which may indicate that 210Pb is one of the emission components
Recently, there is a growing pressure on a rapid construction of agricultural biogas plants, particularly in the Czech-Polish border region. It is an area with large expanses of agricultural land which can serve to supply biogas plants with biomass. This strategy should contribute to harmonize the common agricultural policy of the European Union. A need for qualified operators of these stations on this territory is also increasing. Therefore we first include a demonstration of an education program for students in the field of agricultural waste anaerobic fermentation and biogas production. We present here the first part of an innovative approach which we use in the teaching program “Physico-technical Measurements and Computer Technology” at the Faculty of Science at the University of Hradec Kralove and also in the education of internshipers from the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology at the University of Opole. There are requirements to fulfil labour market expectations and to make this subject more attractive for the students. Students’ theoretical and practical preparation constitutes a comprehensive source of knowledge and skills required in a real life job. Joined theoretical and practical knowledge gained by students, reinforced by the skills developed during task analysis followed by their solution, provides the future graduate higher quality abilities and better position in the labour market.
During the years 2014-2015, biomonitoring studies were carried out at three holding reservoirs located in Swietokrzyskie Province (central Poland): Kielce artificial lake, Chancza reservoir and Sielpia reservoir. In sea water algae Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr, exposed in the analysed waters, the increases of concentrations were determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS), of the following: Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Conductivity and pH were also determined in the reservoirs waters. The differences between the increases of heavy metal concentrations in the samples of algae found along the coastline were indicated; they result from different distances from the pollution sources, such as resorts, communication routes and industrial plants.