Weather conditions prevailing in Poland often cause that meadow sward designated for silage is harvested too late, which decreases the quality of prepared silage. The aim of the research was to assess the quality of silages from dried meadow sward. The silages were ensiled in large cylindrical bales in selected individual farms specializing in milk production. The farms where the research was carried out were located in three voivodeships: slaskie, malopolskie and podkarpackie. In the prepared plant material, the basic chemical composition was determined using the method. When comparing the mean values, it was established that silages from the investigated region had a favourable content of total protein, the highest concentration was recorded for silages from Slask, followed by Malopolska and Podkarpacie. A slightly elevated concentration of crude fibre, fraction of acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), was recorded. This fact shows that farmers collect raw material, particularly from the first cut, too late. Nutrient value of silages from meadow sward decreases with progressing vegetation. Higher protein and energy losses during sward ensiling were also observed at considerable drying of the plant material. In most cases, silages from the studied farms had a low content of monosaccharides. The carried out chemical analyses showed that in overall assessment the studied silages are of good quality; silages prepared from meadow sward from the third cut had the highest value. Proper technology of preservation of meadow sward is one of important factors in the production of feed for ruminants.
Introduction: The Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants (INF&MP) is involved in the protection of the genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). In 1998–2000, the INF&MP conducted research titled “Collection and evaluation of flax and hemp cultivars and ecotypes”. Poland participates in the programme, financed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development because our country has signed the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Objective: The objective of the research was the evaluation of the genetic resources of 23 accessions of flax. The characteristics data for flax accessions are presented according to traditional methodology and according to the methodology for developing the International Flax Data Base.
Methods: Field trials were carried out in 1998–2000 in the experimental station in Wojciechów, located in the Opolskie region. The objective was to evaluate the morphological traits, biological features and seed yield of 23 accessions of flax. The research included the following genotypes of Linum usitatissimum L. according to type of use: 12 linseed varieties, three landraces, one accession of unknown type of use, six fibre varieties and one genotype of both types of use.
Results: The total plant length of Linum was short for 12 accessions of flax, medium short (7) and medium (4). The technical length was short (17 accessions), medium short (3) and medium (3). The stem thickness for all accessions was medium, i.e. between 1.2 and 2.0 mm. The panicle length was short (12 accessions), medium (10) and long (1). A number of primary lateral branches of the stems of all flax accessions was medium (4–8 branches). The 1000 seed weight was low for 21 accessions of flax and very low in two genotypes: Currong and UKR 97 104. The size of the corolla (flower) was small (9), medium (12) and large (2) – varieties: Martin and Maxigold. The petal colour of the corolla was blue (11), light blue (8) and white (4) – Crystal, Hella, Kreola, Achay.
Conclusions: Morphological characterisation of the stamen showed that accession K-1390 was segregating because the anther colour was bluish and greish. The highest resistance to lodging was observed for Abby, Peak and Olinette. The following accessions of flax were very resistant to Fusarium: Martin, UKR 97269, Kijewskij and Ukraińskij 3; resistant to Fusarium: Abby, Peak, Olinette, Crystal, Gold Merchant, Currong and Ukraińskij 2. The following varieties were very susceptible to Fusarium: Hella, Kreola, Maxigold and Achay. These varieties should not be used for cross breeding. The best average seed yield in 1998–2000 in Wojciechów was found in the following accessions of flax: Abby (191%), Gold Merchant (162%), Currong (161%), Olinette (151%), PEAK (148%), UKR 97269 (148%), Crystal (138%), Ukraiński 3 (132%), Martin (130%), Pacific (110%) and Ukraiński 2 (103%). These varieties are particularly valuable for flax breeders.
The aim of this study was to establish a relation between zearalenone contamination of crops in the Polish province of Wielkopolska and its occurrence in aquatic ecosystems close by the crop fields. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as drainage ditches, wells, or watercourses located in four agricultural areas. Moreover, control water samples were collected from the Bogdanka river, which was located outside the agricultural areas and near an urban area. Cereal samples were collected in the harvest season from each agricultural area close to tested water bodies. Zearalenone (ZEA) was found in all water and cereal samples. The highest concentrations were recorded in the postharvest season (September to October) and the lowest in the winter and spring. Mean ZEA concentrations in water ranged between 1.0 ng L-1 and 80.6 ng L-1, and in cereals from 3.72 ng g-1 to 28.97 ng g-1. Our results confirm that mycotoxins are transported to aquatic systems by rain water through soil.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.
The objective of this study was to assess genotype-by-environment interaction for seed glucosinolate content in winter rapeseed cultivars grown in western Poland using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model. The study concerned 25 winter rapeseed genotypes (15 F1 CMS ogura hybrids, parental lines and two European cultivars: open pollinated Californium and F1 hybrid Hercules), evaluated at five locations in a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The seed glucosinolate content of the tested genotypes ranged from 5.53 to 16.80 μmol∙g-1 of seeds, with an average of 10.26 μmol∙g-1. In the AMMI analyses, 48.67% of the seed glucosinolate content variation was explained by environment, 13.07% by differences between genotypes, and 17.56% by genotype-by-environment interaction. The hybrid PN66×PN07 is recommended for further inclusion in the breeding program due to its low average seed glucosinolate content; the restorer line PN18, CMS ogura line PN66 and hybrids PN66×PN18 and PN66×PN21 are recommended because of their stability and low seed glucosinolate content.
Breeding work using European rye populations has resulted in a considerable reduction of genetic variation in breeding materials of that species. Many taxa from the genus Secale may constitute a potential source of genetic variation in rye breeding. A source of new genetic variation can be found in such species as Secale montanum and Secale vavilovii, which are sources of resistance to fusarium ear blight and septoria leaf blotch, while Secale vavilovii may also be a source of sterilising cytoplasm. The aim of this study was to assess the efficiency of crossing the wild species Secale vavilovii and the rye subspecies Secale cereale subsp. afghanicum, Secale cereale subsp. ancestrale, Secale cereale subsp. dighoricum, Secale cereale subsp. segetale with the crop species Secale cereale ssp. cereale, and to produce F1 hybrids and describe selected morphological traits. Observations of biometric traits indicate that the F1 crosses produced may be potential sources of variation for common rye. The greatest variation in terms of all analysed phenotypic traits combined was found for the cross combinations S. c. ssp. cereale cv. Amilo × S. c. ssp. ancestrale and S. c. ssp. cereale cv. Dańkowskie Diament × S. c. ssp. dighoricum. The hybrids showed considerable variation in the analysed biometric traits within individual cross combinations.
The use of pigs as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation can overcome the growing shortage of human donors. Human NK cells play an important role in the cell-mediated rejection of pig-to-human xenografts. In this paper we report the generation and extensive characterization of three generations of transgenic pigs with HLA-E gene encoding the antigen which can inhibit the human NK cell-mediated response. The gene construct pHLAE-GFPBsd containing the human gene encoding the human leukocyte antigen under the promoter of the EF-1α elongation factor ensuring systemic expression was introduced by microinjection into a pronucleus of the fertilized porcine oocyte. PCR analysis revealed and FISH analysis confirmed that the pHLAE-GFPBsd gene construct was present in the genome of the founder female pig. As a result of inter-breeding, an additional 7 transgenic animals were obtained (one individual from F1 generation and six individuals from F2 generation). The transgene expression was shown by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Real Time PCR analysis estimated the approximate number of transgene copies at 16–34. Karyotype analysis did not show any changes in the structure or the number of chromosomes. The expression level of the transgene was stable in the next generation of genetically modified pigs. An NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay showed the increased viability of the transgenic cells in comparison with the wild-type, which confirmed the protective influence of HLA-E expression.
The main purpose of this study was the model fitting of data deriving from a three-year experiment with barley malt. Two linear models were considered: a fixed linear model with fixed effects of years and other factors, and a mixed linear model with random effects of years and fixed effects of other factors. Two cultivars of brewing barley, Sebastian and Mauritia, six methods of nitrogen fertilization and four germination times were analyzed. Three quantitative traits were observed: practical extractivity of the malt, malting productivity, and a quality coefficient Q. The starting point for the statistical analyses was the available experimental material, which consisted of barley grain samples destined for malting. The analyses were performed over a series of years with respect to fixed or random effects of years. Due to the strong differentiation of the years of the study and some significant interactions of factors with years, annual analyses were also carried out.
The aim of this paper is to present the comparison of three models applied to the analysis of a one-year study of protein yield for two types of hybrid maize cultivars under different forms of nitrogen fertilizer and doses of magnesium. The field trial was conducted in 2010 at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Swadzim (Poland). The results obtained were analyzed in terms of three randomization-derived models of observations. Consideration was given to three mixed systems, which are combinations of split-plot design, split-block design and randomized complete block design. The relative efficiency of the designs with respect to estimation of some comparisons among treatment combination effects was examined. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between cultivars and nitrogen fertilization.