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Open access

Anna Tratwal and Jan Bocianowski

Abstract

Powdery mildew caused by fungi Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is one of the most common barley diseases in Polish meteorological conditions. The powdery mildew fungus is made up of different races and forms that are highly specialized. Barley cultivars might be resistant to a certain race of the mildew fungus, but susceptible to another race. Development of the disease is rapid in temperatures from 12 to 20°C, and in humid weather. The aim of the two-year experiment was to assess B. graminis f. sp. hordei virulence frequency and powdery mildew occurrence on five spring barley cultivars. Virulence frequency of the pathogen depended on place and term of exposition. The occurrence of powdery mildew on spring barley cultivars depended on virulence frequency of the pathogen and weather conditions.

Open access

Magdalena Jakubowska and Jan Bocianowski

Abstract

In recent years, a local, growing population of cutworm in agricultural fields with various plants such as vegetables, horticultural, and ornamental plants has been observed. The scope of our research covered the observation of two species of cutworms: Agrotis segetum (Schiff.) and A. exclamationis (L.), which are the most dominant species in Poland. Cutworms were monitored in the 2005-2009 season with the use of Delta type pheromone traps with synthetic sexual pheromone and self-catch traps with a light source. The purpose of the research was to determine the dependence between the dynamics of the catches and the location of the traps, in fields with sugar beet, winter barley, and winter wheat in two municipalities: Winna Góra and Więcławice for the two studied cutworm species. Moreover, we used light traps in our analysis of the two studied cutworm species’, flight dynamics in Poznań, Winna Góra, and Więcławice in the 2003-2006 time period. The overall results can be used for adjusting the currently used monitoring methods for short-term and long-term forecasting of cutworm flights, and for optimizing chemical control of the cutworm

Open access

Agnieszka Dobrzycka, Zbigniew Broda, Jan Bocianowski and Anna Ćwiklinska

Use of AFLP molecular markers for estimating genetic similarity of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Sl.)

The aim of study was to determine genetic similarity among sixteen alfalfa populations using the AFLP technique. Plant material was selected considering the high genotypic variability. It included populations of different origin: native forms of alfalfa (secondary ecotypes), inbred lines, single hybrids, synthetic populations, varieties and mutants. Analysis was carried out using 10 combinations of primers. It was noticed, that in case of the studied alfalfa populations, the highest polymorphism was obtained using primers with three selective nucleotides. The genetic similarity coefficients were calculated by the method of Nei and Li. Those coefficients were used for the hierarchical grouping of objects by the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. Results of the grouping were presented in the form of dendrogram. Values of coefficients ranged from 0.3311 (between the inbred F line and the Ulstar variety) to 0.8076 (between ecotype 27 and the synthetic population Syn 7-3). Dendrogram of genetic similarity obtained in this way did not fully correspond with the known data about the studied populations' origin. Considering the genetic similarity, inbreed line F was the most outlying from the studied populations of alfalfa.

Open access

Anna Ćwiklińska, Zbigniew Broda, Jan Bocianowski and Agnieszka Dobrzycka

The Usefulness of RAPD and AFLP Markers for Determining Genetic Similarity in Rye (Secale L.) Species and Subspecies

In this work we searched for genetic similarities in twelve wild rye species and subspecies and a control (S. cereale ssp. cereale, cv. Walet), using RAPD and AFLP markers. AFLP is useful for distinguishing homo- and heterozygotes but is not recommended for evaluation of codominant markers. We assessed the usefulness of the applied methods for examining genetic similarity in rye. RAPD yielded four groups of genetic similarity, with similarity values between 0.32 and 0.81. AFLP markers distinguished two groups of genetic similarity, ranging from 0.49 to 0.79.

Open access

Wojciech Rybiński, Robert Rusinek, Bogusław Szot, Jan Bocianowski and Michał Starzycki

Abstract

The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

Open access

Maria Morozowska, Aneta Czarna, Iwona Jędrzejczyk and Jan Bocianowski

Abstract

Flow cytometry estimation of 2C nuclear DNA content of the examined Nasturtium species resulted in taxonomic identification of N. × sterile in eight new localities, N. microphyllum in four new localities and N. officinale in one new locality in western Poland. Scanning electron microscopy proved a few of the micromorphological traits of seeds and fruits (size and shape of cells on the fruit septum surface, their anticlinal walls; secondary sculpture on the outer periclinal walls of cells on the siliqua valve internal surface) to be of taxonomic importance.

Open access

Karolina Gromadzka, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Joanna Świetlik, Jan Bocianowski and Piotr Goliński

Abstract

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

Open access

Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Lidia Irzykowska, Zbigniew Karolewski, Jan Bocianowski, Piotr Goliński and Zbigniew Weber

Mycotoxins Biosynthesis by Fusarium Oxysporum and F. Proliferatum Isolates of Asparagus Origin

The subject of this work was fumonisin B1 (FB1) and moniliformin (MON) biosynthesis by three isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and three isolates of F. proliferatum of asparagus spears origin. The cultures of fungi were grown on rice and asparagus media for 3 weeks at 20°C. Experiment was carried out in 3 replicates. FB1 and MON occurrence was evaluated with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Analysis of variance was carried out to determine biosynthesis of FB1 and MON by F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum.

FB1 was found in the amount up to 2012.8 μg/g in cultures of F. proliferatum on rice and in a very small amount in two cultures on asparagus medium. F. oxysporum did not produce FB1 on any of the media. MON was biosynthesized by two the same isolates of F. oxysporum in the amount up to 182.8 μg/g on rice and up to 743.3 μg/g on asparagus medium and one isolate (different on each medium) of F. proliferatum.

Open access

Anna Tratwal, Kamila Roik and Jan Bocianowski

ABSTRACT

. Experiments were conducted in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons at two locations differing in their edaphic and meteorological conditions to assess the effects of mixtures of spring barley cultivars on the occurrence of harmful pests and yields. The most significant pests in the experiment on spring barley in pure sowings and mixtures were cereal leaf beetles (Oulema spp.), with bird cherry-oat aphids (Rhopalosiphum padi) and grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) being somewhat fewer in number. With some mixtures, numbers of cereal leaf beetle larvae, bird cherryoat aphids and grain aphids in comparison with pure stands were reduced. Grain yields from mixtures increased in comparison with those from pure sowings up to 6.48 dt·ha-1 in 2010 and up to 3.99 dt ha-1 in 2011.

Open access

Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Karolina Gromadzka, Jan Bocianowski, Paulina Pluta and Piotr Goliński

Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish a relation between zearalenone contamination of crops in the Polish province of Wielkopolska and its occurrence in aquatic ecosystems close by the crop fields. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as drainage ditches, wells, or watercourses located in four agricultural areas. Moreover, control water samples were collected from the Bogdanka river, which was located outside the agricultural areas and near an urban area. Cereal samples were collected in the harvest season from each agricultural area close to tested water bodies. Zearalenone (ZEA) was found in all water and cereal samples. The highest concentrations were recorded in the postharvest season (September to October) and the lowest in the winter and spring. Mean ZEA concentrations in water ranged between 1.0 ng L-1 and 80.6 ng L-1, and in cereals from 3.72 ng g-1 to 28.97 ng g-1. Our results confirm that mycotoxins are transported to aquatic systems by rain water through soil.