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Jan Baran

Abstract

This paper analyses changes in overeducation incidence in Poland in 2006‑2014. It finds that a rise in number of tertiary educated workers outpaced an increase in number of jobs requiring tertiary education, which resulted in a substantial growth of overeducation incidence. The overeducation increase was driven mainly by mild overeducation rather than severe overeducation. Overeducated workers are usually young with little job experience. Women are found at lower risk of severe overeducation compared to men, but relatively more at risk of mild overeducation. A low risk of overeducation is associated with having studied technical and health programmes.

Open access

Bjőrn Baran, Peter Benner, Jan Heiland and Jens Saak

Abstract

The optimal control of moving boundary problems receives growing attention in science and technology. We consider the so called two-phase Stefan problem that models a solid and a liquid phase separated by a moving interface. The Stefan problem is coupled with incompressible Navier{Stokes equations. We take a sharp interface model approach and define a quadratic tracking-type cost functional that penalizes the deviation of the interface from the desired state and the control costs. With the formal Lagrange approach and an adjoint system we derive the gradient of the cost functional. The derived formulations can be used to achieve a desired interface position. Among others, we address how to handle the weak discontinuity of the temperature along the interface with mesh movement methods in a finite element framework.

Open access

Jan Kuśmierek and Urszula Baran

Abstract

The discrepant arrangement of the Carpathian nappes and syntectonic deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep reveals the oroclinal migration of the subduction direction of the platform margin during the Late Cenozoic. Formation of the nappes was induced by their detachment from disintegrated segments of the European Platform; the segments were shortened as a result of their vertical rotation in zones of compressional sutures. It finds expression in local occurrence of the backward vergence of folding against the generally forward vergence toward the Carpathian Foredeep. The precompressional configuration of sedimentation areas of particular nappes was reconstructed with application of the palinspastic method, on the basis of the hitherto undervalued model which emphasizes the influence of the subduction and differentiated morphology of the platform basement on the tectonic evolution of the fold and thrust belt. Superposition of the palaeogeographic representations and the present geometry of the orogen allows understanding of the impact of the magnitudes of tectonic displacements on the differentiation of the geological structure in the NE segment of the Carpathians. The differentiation has inspired different views of Polish and Ukrainian geologists on structural classification and evolution of the frontal thrusts.