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Ihsan Yilmaz, Greg Barton and James Barry

Abstract

For decades, Turkish Islamists have failed to attract the votes of large sections of society and remained marginal. As a result of this failure to come to power, and due to domestic and international constraints and windows of opportunities, they have declared that they have jettisoned Islamism. Many Turkish Muslims whose religious disposition was shaped by the pluralistic urban Ottoman experience and small-town Anatolian traditionalism, and by the contesting currents of cosmopolitan pluralism and rural social conservatism, voted in favour of these former Islamists who have become “Muslim Democrats”. This paper elaborates on the genealogy of Turkish Islamists and their political trajectories and argues that when the forces and constraints of domestic and external social, political and economic conditions disappeared and the opportunities derived from being Muslim Democrats no longer existed, the former Islamists easily returned to their original ideology, showing that despite assertions to the contrary their respect for democracy and pluralism had not truly been internalised. This paper also aims to demonstrate that similar to other authoritarian populists, Erdoganists perceive the state and its leader as more important than anything else and as being above everything else, which has culminated in a personality cult and sanctification of the state. As long as Turkey’s economy continued to boom, almost everyone was happy that Turkey could readily market the “Muslim Democrats” story to the whole world for a long period as a major success story, or as an “exemplary Muslim country” or “model”. Yet, Middle Eastern elites and Western forces got carried away and learnt the hard way just how naive their view was in perhaps the first great transformation movement of the twenty-first century – the Arab Spring. Likewise, the Turkish Spring turned all too quickly towards autumn and then winter.

Open access

Chad E. Smith, James C. Hannon, Brian McGladrey, Barry Shultz, Patricia Eisenman and Brian Lyons

Abstract

Purpose. Many strength and conditioning professionals propose that postactivation potentiation (PAP) warm-ups enhance power performance although there are few studies conducted in this regard on sprinting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a PAP warm-up on sprint performance. Methods. Twenty-four men and women completed a 40-yard (yd) sprint pretest on four nonconsecutive days followed by a PAP warm-up that included a sled resistance sprint at either 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% of their body mass and concluded with a 40-yd dash posttest. Each resistance sprint was recorded for kinematic analysis. Results. A 2 × 2 × 4 factorial mixed ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference between sexes in 40-yd dash times (p < 0.001). A significant main effect was found in pre- and post-40-yd dash measures regardless of sex (p < 0.001). The results indicated no significant differences in the post-40-yd dash times between sled loads and the load by time interaction. The participants’ 40-yd dash times improved 1.2% on average after the 10% load. Improvements in dash time for the 0%, 20%, and 30% loads were greater than 2%. Sprint kinematics analysis demonstrated statistically significant differences between lighter and heavier loads. Conclusions. Regardless of the significant disruptions in sprint mechanics, there appears to be a potential for heavier sled resistances to affect acute improvements in 40-yd sprint performance. However, it is unclear whether heavier sleds loads may provide greater benefit than warming up with 0% resistance.

Open access

Asaph Young Chun, Barry Schouten and James Wagner