The paper presents the validation procedure of the model used in the analysis of the composite blade for the rotor of the ILX-27 rotorcraft, designed and manufactured in the Institute of Aviation, by means of numerical analyses and tests of composite elements. Numerical analysis using finite element method and experimental studies of three research objects made of basic materials comprising the blade structure – carbon-epoxy laminate, glass-epoxy composite made of roving and foam filler – were carried out. The elements were in the form of four-point bent beams, and for comparison of the results the deflection arrow values in the middle of the beam and axial deformations on the upper and lower surfaces were selected. The procedure allowed to adjust the discrete model to real objects and to verify and correct the material data used in the strength analysis of the designed blade.
The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of 6 week Mediterranean diet or 30% calorie restriction on the fatty acid profile and eicosanoids (hydroxyoctadecadienoi acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids) concentration. Furthermore, basic biochemical variables such as insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, and a lipid profile were estimated. The study enrolled 94 Caucasian former athletes aged 20-42, with body height of 179 ± 16.00 cm and body mass of 89.26 ± 13.25 kg who had not been active for at least 5 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups: CR group – the 30% calorie restriction (n = 32), MD group - the Mediterranean diet (n = 34), and C group - a control group (n = 28). The pattern of nutrition was analysed before and after the experiment using the 72 h food diaries. In order to evaluate the effect of diet intervention, the following variables were measured: anthropometrics, basic biochemical variables (insulin, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profile), fatty acids and their blood derivatives profiles. The CR group showed significantly lower levels of several biochemical variables, i.e., BMI, total cholesterol LDL, TG, total lipids, insulin and HOMA – IR (p < 0.05). Subjects consuming the MD diet significantly decreased their BMI and reduced the level of total lipids (p < 0.05). We did not find any significant changes in the C group. The analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the CR group had a significantly decreased EPA level (p < 0.05). The MD group showed a significantly increased level of the DHA (p < 0.05) and improvement in the omega - 3 index (p < 0.05). Subjects following the MD also showed significantly lower concentrations of 15 - hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE). We did not observe any significant differences between the CR and C groups. Within short time, calorie restriction helps to improve lipid variables and insulin resistance. The MD diet seems to be more advantageous in the decrease of inflammation, but does not improve basic biochemical variables. We can conclude that calorie restriction can be a good choice for former athletes, although EPA and DHA supplementation is needed.