Molecular identification of sex in dioecious moss Nyholmiella obtusifolia (Orthotrichaceae) on the basis of ISSR markers
As far as an unisexuality in the animal kingdom is typical, in higher plants there most species are bisexual. Whereas in haploid bryophyte it can be noticed that dioecy in this group prevails. In the dioecious bryophyte a huge problem makes diagnostics of gender. Most dioecious mosses do not exhibit any discernible sexual dimorphism. The aim of present research was a finding genetic differences between two gender in the dioecious moss Nyholmiella obtusifolia with use of ISSR markers. This study was conducted on 16 individuals: 6 females (without sporophytes) and 10 randomly selected (unknown gender), what was dedicated by a very small number of sex-expressing plant material (rare sporophytes). Out of 12 ISSR primes using to this research, only 4 of them gave clear band patterns. There were: IS807, IS825, IS835 and IS840. The following results are based only on the amplification with ISSR 807 primer. It revealed the products of amplification, which seem to be typical for males and females, which sizes were approximately 600 bp for the former and 500 bp for the latter. This study without doubt is the first trial of finding of genetic differences between females and males in dioecious moss Nyholmiella obtusifolia. This is the first step in development of sex-specific molecular marker for Nyholmiella obtusifolia. It is insomuch important, because it would be just the second moss, for which a molecular sex marker would be devised.
Jakub Sawicki, Vítězslav Plášek and Monika Szczecińska
Recent data on occurrence the sporophytes in populations of dioecious moss, Nyholmiella obtusifolia in North-Eastern Poland
Moss Nyholmiella obtusifolia is relatively common in Poland, but mostly sterile specimens are found in herbarium collections. Sporogenes were created very rare. During bryological explorations conducted in NE Poland in 2009 - 2011, sporophytes were found in four populations of N. obtusifolia, which account for approximately 7% of the surveyed populations.
Zbigniew Celka, Monika Szczecińska and Jakub Sawicki
Genetic relationships between some of Malva species as determined with ISSR and ISJ markers
Two categories of DNA markers were used to determine genetic relationships among eight Malva taxa. A maximum parsimony analysis validated the division of the genus Malva into the sections Bismalva and Malva. The species classified into those sections formed separate clusters. M. moschata was a distinctive species in the section Bismalva, as confirmed by previous genetic research based on ITS and cpDNA sequence analyses. The applied markers revealed a very high level of genetic identity between M. alcea and M. excisa and enabled molecular identification of M. alcea var. fastigiata. Speciesspecific markers were determined for the majority of the analyzed species, permitting their molecular identification. A specific marker supporting the differentiation of M. alcea and M. excisa was not found.
Katarzyna Wąsowicz, Monika Szczecińska and Jakub Sawicki
The reasons for low intrapopulation genetic variation in Lamium incisum Willd
The paper presents results of a study which aim was preliminary screening of intrapopulation genetic variability in Lamium incisum Willd. This weed species is rarely distributed in Poland and lessening its count during the last years. As a plant inhabiting anthropogenic sites it is exposed to extreme conditions and disturbances caused mostly by the progressive intensification of agriculture. In order to investigate the genetic variability of the selected population markers of ISSR category were used. The analysis of chosen individuals with use of three ISSR primers revealed total of 49 loci, of which only 15 were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity index (HE=0.099) and the mean number of alleles per locus (AE=1.160) indicated low genetic diversity within the examined population. The research presented in this paper allows for a better learning of the genetic variability of the investigated species and considers probable factors influencing its level.
Orthotrichum affine var. bohemicum Plášek & Sawicki was described as a new variety from the Czech Republic in 2011. However, in the original diagnosis the holotype specimen and the type location were not conclusively designated. To validate this new name, the current article clearly states which specimen is selected as the holotype and the type locality.
Mechanisms of sex determination in plants are popular research topic. Research studies are initiated to describe sex determination mechanisms and develop molecular methods for sex differentiation in plant species where sexual dimorphism is weakly expressed or absent at the early stages of development. This study presents different mechanisms of sex determination in plants, identifies unexplored areas and discusses problems which limit our knowledge of the subject.
Vítězslav Plášek, Jakub Sawicki and Ryszard Ochyra
The generic name Dorcadion Adans. ex Lindb. is a superfluous and illegitimate name for Orthotrichum Hedw. The new generic name Dorcadionella Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is proposed for a segregate of Orthotrichum which comprises species with superficial stomata that are always monoicous and only occasionally produce gemmae on leaves. Dorcadionella affinis (Schrad. ex Brid.) Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is selected as a type of this new generic name. The genus Dorcadionella consists of 63 species and one variety that have a worldwide distribution. Traditionally, they were all placed in Orthotrichum and the relevant transfers to the new genus are effected in the present account.
Katarzyna Buczkowska, Jakub Sawicki, Monika Szczecińska, Stanisław Rosadziński, Mariola Rabska and Alina Bączkiewicz
Two morphologically distinct groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex were found in Europe
Two genetically distinct groups (PS and PB) detected previously within the C. fissa complex in Europe were studied with respect to 47 morphometric characters. The two examined groups differed statistically significantly with respect to 34 morphological traits. The forward stepwise method of discriminant analysis showed that the set of diagnostic characters could be limited to nine. The best diagnostic features were morphological characters describing the shape of leaf: length and width of leaf, height of dorsal part and distance from the apex to the ventral base of the leaf, length of the 3rd coordinate of the leaf, and underleaf width as well as characters of the stem: length of internodes and size of internode cells. Plants of the PS group were smaller (shoot width range from 922-1780 μm) than plants of the PB group (1600-3900 μm). Based on genetically identified samples, classification functions for each group were computed and the derived functions were used for the classification of samples from the herbarium collections. The principal component analysis and dendrogram constructed on the basis of Euclidean distance, using the set of diagnostic characters, divided the examined samples into two groups that correlated with groups detected by isozyme markers. Results of multivariable analysis showed that it is possible to satisfactorily characterise morphologically both genetically distinct groups of the C. fissa complex.
Angelika Maria Gomolińska, Monika Szczecińska, Jakub Sawicki, Katarzyna Krawczyk and Piotr Szkudlarz
The rpo genes are characterized by rapidly-evolving sequences. They encode subunits of plastid-encoded (PEP) polymerase (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1 and rpoC2). This polymerase is one of the most important enzymes in the chloroplasts. The primary aim of the research was to study the rate of molecular evolution in the rpo genes and to estimate these genes as phylogenetic markers based on the example of the genus Erica (Ericaceae). The tested rpo genes demonstrated similarities on multiple levels, for example: phylogenetic informativeness, variation level, intragenic mutation rates and the effect of intragenic mutations on the properties of encoded peptides. This study did not confirm that the analyzed rpo genes are reliable markers and may be helpful in understanding phylogenetic relationships between species that belong to the same genus. The rpoC2 gene was found to be a most useful phylogenetic marker in the Erica genus, while rpoC1 was found to be the least promising gene.
Halina Bednarek-Ochyra, Jakub Sawicki, Ryszard Ochyra, Monika Szczecińska and Vítězslav Plášek
Based on available molecular and morphological evidence, the genus Codriophorus P.Beauv. (Grimmiaceae subfam. Racomitrioideae) proved to be a polyphyletic taxon. It consists of two distinct genera which correspond to two sections of Codriophorus, namely sect. Codriophorus and sect. Fascicularia (Bednarek-Ochyra) Bednarek-Ochyra & Ochyra. The latter section is raised to generic rank as Dilutineuron Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek. The new genus consists of the following five species: D. fasciculare (Hedw.) Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. brevisetum (Lindb.) Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. anomodontoides (Cardot) Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov., D. corrugatum (Bednarek-Ochyra) Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov. and D. laevigatum (Mitt.) Bednarek-Ochyra, Sawicki, Ochyra, Szczecińska & Plášek, comb. nov.