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Jakub Elbl, Magdalena Vaverková, Dana Adamcová, Lukáš Plošek, Antonín Kintl, Tomáš LošÁk, Jaroslav Hynšt and Jana Kotovicová

Abstract

This work presents the analysis of the influence of compost and reclamation substrate addition and mineral fertilizers application on leaching of mineral nitrogen, microbial activities, soil hydrophobicity and plant biomass production. To demonstrate the effect of compost, reclamation substrate and mineral nitrogen (Nmin) addition on above parameters, the pot experiment was performed. As a model crop, Deschampsia caespitosa L. was used and cultivated for 63 days in climate chamber. The leaching of Nmjn was measured by application of ion exchange discs, soil hydrophobicity was determined based on the values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) and microbial activity was expressed as basal (BR) and substrate induced respiration (SIR). Four variants (V1-V4) with different doses of fertilizers were prepared: V1 - control without addition of fertilizers; V2 - this variant of experiment was prepared as mixture of compost and arable land in ratio 7:3; V3 - 90 g/m2 of mineral fertilizers NPK (in the ratio 1:1:1) were applied there and into V4, dose 30 g of compost were applied. The significant differences (P < 0.05) in the detection of Nmin, values of Ksat and SIR were found. The highest decrease of mineral nitrogen leaching was observed by the simultaneous applications of compost (V4) to arable soil, about 50% in comparison with the variant V4 (application of mineral fertilization) and about 10% in comparison with the control. Variants with addition of compost (V2 and V4) showed higher values than variants without, which were measured at three stages (before application of Nmin - 12 days after establishment of the experiment; after application of Nmin - 34 days; at end of the experiment - 63 days). During the experiment, two types of respiration were measured: BR and SIR. The significant differences in SIR were found between variants with addition of compost and variants without. The SIR (cumulative production of CO2) was higher about 25% in variants V2 and V4 compared to variants V1 and V3. The highest values of Ksat were found in variants with addition of compost. Conversely, the lowest value of Ksat was detected in variant with addition of Nmin. Low values of Ksat indicate an increased level of hydrophobicity.

Open access

Jakub Elbl, Petr Sláma, Magdalena D. Vaverková, Lukáš Plošek, Dana Adamcová, Petr Škarpa, Jindřich Kynický, Zdeněk Havlíček, Helena Dvořáčková, Martin Brtnický and Eliška Kabourková

Abstract

Modern agriculture faces to new challenges and problems. Application of organic waste compost (Cp) and Jatropha seed cake (JSC) represents new possibilities to improve soil organic matter (SOM) and thus reduce the risk of soil degradation. Our paper presents results of laboratory experiment. Based on these results, we conclude that the application of organic substances has positive effect on soil fertility but the impact of individual substances is different. JSC has higher influence on soil properties (microbial activity and plant production) in the short term. Conversely, Cp affects soil properties in the long term. These properties are due to their chemical composition.

Open access

Tomáš Lošák, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Pavel Čermák, Gabriela Mühlbachová, Reinhard W. Neugschwandtner, Stanislav Torma and Jaroslav Hlušek

Abstract

A two-year pot experiment (5 kg of soil - Mitscherlich pots) was established in a vegetation hall in Brno (Czech Republic) in the years 2016‒2017. Spring barley, variety KWS Irina, was grown. Chernozem from Brno (with a good magnesium (Mg) content and alkali soil reaction - 7.37) was used for this experiment. The rates of Mg (0.075-0.15-0.3 g per pot) and sulphur (S) (0.1-0.2-0.4 g per pot) were increased by using the ESTA Kieserite fertiliser (25% MgO; 20% S), treatments 2-4. Nitrogen was applied in the form of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate - CAN (27% N) at a rate of 1 g N per pot in all the treatments including the control. The effect of the year was found to be significant on all the parameters under study, with the exception of the soil reaction. The exchangeable soil reaction (pH) after the harvest did not differ in all the fertilised treatments (7.40-7.50) compared to the unfertilised control treatment (7.40-7.45) in both years. The content of post-harvest soil Mg and S increased significantly with the applied rate (285-354 mg Mg/kg in fertilised treatments compared to 276-284 mg Mg/kg in unfertilised control and 47-112 mg S/kg in fertilised treatments compared to 24-54 mg S/kg in unfertilised control, respectively). Dry matter yields of the aboveground biomass were significantly the lowest in the control treatment not fertilised with Mg and S during both years (23.00 and 29.02 g DM per pot) and increased after applications of Mg and S: 27.75-29.25-28.25 in 2016 and 30.33-31.00-34.50 in 2017 (g DM per pot).