Textile fabrics were subjected to bio-pretreatment using high-activity laccase from Cerrena unicolor for comparison to standard alkaline scouring and organic absorber of ultraviolet (UV) radiation based on 1,3,5-triazine derivatives. The basic aim of the study was the development of textiles made of natural cellulose fibers (mainly flax or its blends with cotton) to provide barrier properties against UV radiation. Controlled application of enzymatic pretreatment of woven fabrics made of natural cellulose fibers allows for an efficient removal of impurities from these fibers, resulting in the improvement of sorptive properties and good penetration of dyeing agents, UV organic absorbers and other chemical modifiers, into the textile structure. In this way, products with UV-protection properties (ultraviolet protection factor >40) are obtained. These innovative barrier materials can be used for outdoor textiles that protect professional people from harmful effects of UV radiation.
Characterization of TiO2 surface following the modification with silane coupling agents
Studies were conducted on the modification of titanium white surface using selected silane coupling agents. The effect of the concentration of the organic coupling agents was examined (0.5; 1 or 3 weight parts per 100 weight parts of TYTANPOL R-003, TYTANPOL R-211 or TYTANPOL R-213 preparation of titanium white). The dispersive properties were determined by an estimation of the particle size distribution curves and of the polydispersity index. Moreover, microscopic observations were conducted permitting to evaluate the surface morphology of the modified TiO2 particles. The profiles of sedimentation in water were also determined for the titanium whites and the BET specific surface areas were determined. Selected samples of the modified and unmodified titanium whites were subjected to elemental analysis.
The morphological and dispersive characterization of commercial titanium dioxides
The physicochemical and dispersive characterizations were conducted on the selected commercial titanium dioxides produced by, Z. Ch. POLICE, S. A. The dispersive properties were defined in detail by an analysis of particle size distribution and polydispersity index. Moreover, the microscope studies were executed to evaluate the surface morphology of the studied TiO2 forms. The profiles of titanium dioxides sedimentation in water were determined and the specific surface areas were defined by the BET method.