Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczyńska and Sebastian Maszewski
This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants) has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Paweł Małagocki, Beata Furga, Magdalena Gembal and Joanna Cebulska
Introduction: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) belong to a well-known group of pollutants. Present in feedstuffs, they bioaccumulate in tissues of food-producing animals. Food is the source of over 90% of human PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intake. Thus, feed control is one of the pillars of the EU strategy and a mean of reducing human exposure. The article presents AhR based reporter gene bioassay method for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs analysis in feed and its validation results.
Material and Methods: Analytes were extracted from samples with fat. Subsequently, fat and other interferences were removed from extract using sulphuric acid modified silica. Extract was further cleaned and PCDD/Fs separated from DL-PCBs using carbon column. Contaminants detection was performed using H1L6.1c3 cell line, which produces luciferase in response to AhR ligands present in extract.
Results: Performance characteristics (repeatability, reproducibility, and apparent recovery) fulfil the requirements of Regulation 2017/771/EU. The positive correlation between bioassay and reference HRGC-HRMS method was confirmed. Moreover, the role of screening method used in connection with the confirmatory HRGC-HRMS method in providing feed and food safety has been discussed.
Conclusion: Bioassay is a useful method for dioxin and DL-PCBs analysis, allowing cost reduction of monitoring programmes with minimal risk of false negative results.
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczyńska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Sebastian Maszewski, Jarosław Rachubik and Małgorzata Warenik-Bany
The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.