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Open access

Bogdan Pietraszewski, Jadwiga Pietraszewska and Anna Burdukiewicz

Relationship between Knee Joint Flexor and Extensor Torques and Tissue Components in Young Men

Purpose. The purpose of this work was to assess the relationship between muscle torques in the knee joint area and components of tissue composition by means of the bioelectrical impedance method. Basic procedures. 31 male subjects, aged 22-23, participated in the study. Basic morphological parameters, namely: body height (BH), body mass (BM) and somatotype were measured by the usage of Sheldon method modified by Heath and Carter. The body composition was examined using an BIA 101S apparatus by Akern. Torques of the knee joint extensors and flexors of both limbs were measured for joint angles 75° and 30°, respectively. In the statistical report cluster analysis was applied (k-means). Step regression was applied in order to evaluate the relationship between muscle torques and tissue components. Main findings. A significant correlation (r = 0.42 for p ≤ 0.01) between the torques of the knee joint extensors and the entire content of lean body, its metabolically active components (BCM) and muscle mass was observed. Also, a high value of correlation coefficient between extensors and fat mass was noticed. Significant correlations between flexor torque and muscle mass, cell mass and lean body were observed. Conclusions. The results obtained enable us to conclude that the values of muscle torques are significantly connected with the level of development of the tissue components, thus its estimation may be based on the measurement of body components.

Open access

Aleksandra Stachoń and Jadwiga Pietraszewska

ABSTRACT

Purpose. Body composition and fat distribution is specific for particular populations and social groups. However, one factor that significantly affects body composition is physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the various components of body composition in male physical education students with regard to their physical activity level. Methods. A detailed questionnaire survey on physical activity was administered to 252 male students. Based on their responses, the participants were placed into two groups engaged in either moderate or vigorous physical activity. Anthropometric measurements included measures of body height and mass and also skinfold thickness. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis was performed by comparing the groups’ mean values, standard deviations, and percentages of the components of body composition. Results. The groups did not differ significantly for mean body height and mass. No statistically significant differences were found in the absolute amounts of the various components of body composition (except for fat mass) between the groups. Both groups had 61.5 kg of fat-free mass (constituting 80.6% of body mass for the vigorously active and 78.7% of body mass for the moderately active students) and both had 44 kg of muscle mass (constituting 58.3% and 56.1% of body mass, respectively). Students who declared to be involved in vigorous physical activity had 2 kg less and 2% lower fat mass than those involved in moderate physical activity (based on BIA measurements). Measures of skinfold thickness found more subcutaneous fat tissue in the vigorously active group, but the use of a fat index based on body height found them to present less fat. Conclusions. The difference in fat content between physical education students who were more or less physically active was found to be 2 kg and 2%. The results found that physical activity level was not associated with body height, body mass, and the absolute amounts of the other studied components of body composition.

Open access

Aleksandra Stachoń, Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Justyna Andrzejewska and Krystyna Chromik

Biological Symptoms of Aging in Women Regarding Physical Activity and Lifestyle

Purpose. Menopause in many women is related to worse health conditions, increased diseases incidence and body mass. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether the differentiation of the involutional changes related to the climacteric period depends on women's physical activity and selected aspects of lifestyle. The following aging indices were analyzed: age of menopause, value of blood parameters, disease incidence, BMI. Basic procedures. The research, conducted in the health care units, was based on the survey approved by the Bioethical Committee at the Jagiellonian University. The data of 896 women above the age of 40 were used in the research. Basic statistics were calculated and tests of significance of differences and correlation were applied. Main findings. There is no significant relationship between the level of physical activity, the type of work performed and the age of menopause. However, women performing white-collar work and practicing sports enter menopause last. In smokers the age of menopause lowered. Women using vegetarian diets and women with high BMI values go through menopause later. High BMI values and nicotine addiction are significantly related to the increased level of blood sugar, diabetes incidence and high blood pressure. The cholesterol level is significantly related to the age of the subjects. The percentage of increased cholesterol level is smaller in women practicing sports who have also significantly lower BMI values than those who do not go in for any sports. Conclusions. The analysis of health and aging indices confirms the highest correlation between BMI and the external factors. Moreover, regarding the specificity of hormonal changes during climacterium, overweight and obese women go through menopause later.

Open access

Aleksandra Stachoń, Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska and Justyna Andrzejewska

Changes in Body Build of AWF Students 1967-2008. Can a Secular Trend be Observed?

Purpose. Previous research on intergenerational changes in body build has focused on body height and mass. The aim of this study was to determine both the direction and sexual dimorphism of secular changes in body build by using a sample population of students attending the University School of Physical Education (AWF) in Wrocław, Poland. Methods. The anthropometric data used in this study were collected every year from 1967 to 2008 and included a sample size of 4688 males and 3922 females. The subjects were analyzed for changes in somatotype by use of Sheldon's method, as modified by Heath and Carter. Basic statistical analysis for significance and post-hoc tests were used to analyze the data with Statistica 9.0 software. The data were then converted in Excel 2003 into chart form to analyze the direction of changes. Results. Analysis of the successive classes of male and female subjects during the 40-year period under study revealed a number of different directional changes in the mean values of body height, mass and the level of body build components. Trend lines, calculated by the mean values of five-year intervals, indicated an increasing tendency in both body height and mass in the two genders. Mesomorphy was found to be the largest factor of body build composition of females and males. Throughout the entire analyzed period, the endomorphy of males was significantly lower in comparison to females. In women, the level of fatness was similar to their level of musculature, but during the last several years the observed level of muscle in the students exceeded their fatness level. Ectomorphy happened to be the most stable component of both sexes. Conclusions. Analysis on the male and female sample population revealed a constant increase in body mass and height in successive generations. In female subjects, intergenerational changes were found to be characterized by a decrease in endomorphy and an increase in ectomorphy, while the level of mesomorphy remained at a similar level. In men, a secular trend was visible with an increase in mesomorphy, while the levels of endomorphy and ectomorphy stayed constant.

Open access

Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz, Aleksandra Stachoń, Justyna Andrzejewska, Tadeusz Stefaniak and Kazimierz Witkowski

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the present study was to assess the morpho-functional characteristics of male jiu-jitsu practitioners against a sample of strength-trained university students. Methods. The all-male research sample included 49 jiu-jitsu competitors and 30 university students actively involved in strength training. Measures of body mass and height, lower extremity length, sitting height, arm span, trunk width, skeletal breadths, circumferences and skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities were collected. Body tissue composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Somatotype was classified according to the anthropometric method of Heath and Carter. Participants also performed three motor tests composed of the standing long jump, flexed arm hang, and sit-ups and two dynamometer tests measuring handgrip and back muscle strength. Differences between the measured characteristics in both samples were analyzed using Student’s t test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to the determine the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the results of the motor tests. Results. The jiu-jitsu sample was slightly smaller than the strength-training students. In contrast, body mass was almost identical in both groups. The remaining length, height, and skinfold characteristics also did not differ significantly between the groups. Only hip breadth was significantly larger in the jiu-jitsu sample. No between-group differences were noted in the levels of endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. The composite somatotype of the jiu-jitsu athletes (2.1-5.8-2.0) was very similar to that of the strength-trained students (2.1-5.9-2.4). Statistically significant differences were observed in the tests assessing muscle strength. Handgrip and back muscle strength was greater in the strength-training students, whereas the jiu-jitsu athletes performed better in all three motor tests. Conclusions. The minor morphological differences between the jiu-jitsu and strength-training groups may be due to the different sporting level of the participants. Whereas the intense weight training regime of the strength-training students allowed them to achieve higher results in the dynamometer tests, the more multidimensional aspect of jiu-jitsu training was reflected in achieving better results in the motor tests.

Open access

Anna Burdukiewicz, Jan Chmura, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Justyna Andrzejewska, Aleksandra Stachoń and Jarosław Nosal

Abstract

Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the body tissue composition and functional traits of young football players. Methods. Analysis was performed on 23 junior football players. Body mass and height were measured. Bioelectrical impedance was used to assess the players’ body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, body cell mass and extracellular mass). The body mass index, body cell mass index and the extracellular mass/body cell mass ratio were also calculated. Functional traits were assessed by a one-on-one football game in an enclosed space with the objective to score the highest number of goals in a timed setting. Measurements of HRrest, HRmax and heart rate reserve were used to evaluate the efficiency of the subjects’ cardiovascular systems. Results. Insignificant differences in body tissue composition and cardiovascular efficiency were found regardless of what position was played. Overall, forwards were characterised by having the greatest height, the highest level of active body tissue development and the most efficient cardiovascular systems. Defenders were characterised by having larger body build, while midfielders displayed a significantly greater percentage of extracellular mass and EMC in relation to BC M. Conclusions. The results reveal that trends exist in the body tissue composition and cardiovascular efficiency of football players depending on which position they play. These differences reflect the varied physical efforts players perform during a match and should be taken into consideration when designing training programmes.

Open access

Anna Książek, Aleksandra Zagrodna, Jadwiga Pietraszewska and Małgorzata Słowińska -Lisowska

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and skinfold thickness in Poland’s premier league (Ekstraklasa) football players. Methods. We enrolled 43 Poland’s premier league football players. The mean age was 22.7 ± 5.3 years. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured by electrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) using the Elecsys system (Roche, Switzerland). Skinfold measurements were taken with a Harpenden-type skinfold calliper body fat tester, characterised by a constant pressure of 10 g/mm2. Results. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OH)D levels in 74.4% of the professional football players. We did show a statistically significant negative correlation between the 25(OH)D levels and the biceps skinfold thickness (r = −0.33), iliac crest skinfold thickness (r = −0.43), the sum of all the studied parameters (r = −0.5) and percentage of body fat (r = −0.49). Conclusions. Our results suggest that athletes with higher content of the adipose tissue may be at a higher risk of vitamin D deficiency, and that 25(OH)D levels need to be monitored in professional athletes, particularly during the winter season.

Open access

Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Aleksandra Stachoń, Krystyna Chromik and Dawid Goliński

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and technical constructs of futsal set the game apart from other indoor soccer games, finding that futsal players share a number of morphological similarities with handball players.

Open access

Aleksandra Stachoń, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Anna Burdukiewicz and Justyna Andrzejewska

Abstract

Purpose. The appropriate percentage of body fat is essential for women’s health and biological condition. Both accumulation of fat and distribution pattern of adipose tissue are connected with health risk, which justifies the investigation and permanent monitoring of their diversity in different sub-populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the percentage of body fat and its distribution in female students representing different physical activity levels.

Methods. Fat proportion was estimated with use of classic anthropometric method and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The distribution of subcutaneous fat was calculated including waist and hip circumferences, and extremities and trunk skinfolds. The participants’ level of physical activity was determined according to the IPAQ questionnaire.

Results. Analysis showed that female students with medium level of physical activity had 26.5 ± 5.1% of total body fat estimated by BIA, whereas in the most active females almost 3% lower total body fat values were common. The bioelectrical impedance analysis indicated about 8% higher body fat content than classic anthropometry. Examined skinfolds revealed a tendency to decrease with increasing physical activity. The distribution pattern of subcutaneous fat varied according to level of activity.

Conclusions. The study showed that estimation of fat content in young women differed depending on the applied method and the level of physical activity. We emphasize the need to select adequate reference data for measurement methods and consider the level of physical activity during fat percentage assessment. Another conclusion is that the high level of physical activity is connected with masculinization of subcutaneous fat pattern, both in extremities/trunk fat proportion and waist/hip proportion.

Open access

Krystyna Chromik, Anna Burdukiewicz, Jadwiga Pietraszewska, Aleksandra Stachoń, Paweł Wolański and Dawid Goliński

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the study was to determine differences in anteroposterior spine curvatures between futsal players, soccer players, and non-training students. The results may contribute to the development of present-day knowledge of posturometry, and its implementation in training can help reduce the risk of body posture disorders in athletes. Methods. The examined group consisted of 48 athletes and 38 non-training college students. Body posture parameters were measured with the use of Posturometr-S. The normality of distribution was checked with the Shapiro-Wilk test, and the differences between the groups were measured with ANOVA and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. The analysis of angle values revealed the widest and most similar measurements in the group of futsal players and soccer players. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between the soccer players and futsal players (p = 0.003). The difference between the soccer players and non-training students was statistically significant. The highest γ angular value was measured in non-training students, followed by futsal players and soccer players. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences between the non-training students and futsal players, as well as non-training students and soccer players (p < 0.001). Conclusions. A complex assessment of athletes’ body posture is crucial in injury prevention. Training overloads may often lead to disorders of the organ of locomotion and affect the correct body posture in athletes. This, in turn, may result in pains and injuries.