Radon exhalation from ground is a process dependent on the emanation and migration of radon through ambient air. Most studies on radon exhalation from soil were performed regarding the influence of meteorological and soil parameters. As radon exhalation rate can be affected by the internal properties of the sample, it may also be influenced by the exhalation chamber geometry such as volume-to-area (V/S) ratio or other construction parameters. The measurements of radon exhalation from soil were made using different constructions of accumulation chamber and two types of radon monitors: RAD7 (Durridge) and AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (Genitron). The measurements were performed on one site in two locations and approximately at the same time. The first tests did not show the correlations of exhalation rate values and the chamber’s construction parameters and their geometrical dimensions. However, when examining the results, it seems that there are still too many factors that might have affected the process of radon exhalation. The future experiments are planned to be conducted in controlled laboratory conditions.
Most people spend the majority of their time in indoor environments where the level of harmful pollutants is often significantly higher than outdoors. Radon (222Rn) and its decay products are the example of radioactive pollutants. These radioisotopes are the main source of ionizing radiation in non-industrial buildings. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of air-conditioning system on radon and its progeny concentrations and thus on the effective dose. The measurements were carried out in the auditorium at the Environmental Engineering Faculty (Lublin University of Technology, Poland). Measurements of radon and its progeny (in attached and unattached fractions) as well as measurements of the following indoor air parameters were performed in two air-conditioning (AC) operation modes: AC ON and AC ON/OFF. The air supply rate and air recirculation were taken into consideration. The separation of radon progeny into attached and unattached fractions allowed for determining, respectively, the dose conversion factor (DCF) and the inhalation dose for teachers and students in the auditorium. A considerable increase of the mean radon progeny concentrations from 1.2 Bq/m3 to 5.0 Bq/m3 was observed in the AC ON/OFF mode compared to the AC ON mode. This also resulted in the increase of the inhalation dose from 0.005 mSv/y to 0.016 mSv/y (for 200 h/year). Furthermore, the change of the air recirculation rate from 0% to 80% resulted in a decrease of the mean radon concentration from 30 Bq/m3 to 12 Bq/m3 and the reduction of the mean radon progeny concentration from 1.4 Bq/m3 to 0.8 Bq/m3. This resulted in the reduction of the inhalation dose from 0.006 mSv/y to 0.003 mSv/y.
Radon concentration was measured in 11 thermal spas in Visegrad countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia). The results showed that in 84% of spas radon activity concentration is less than 400 Bq·m−3. However, areas with radon activity concentration exceeding 1000 Bq·m−3 were found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia as well. Preliminary analyses indicated that the highest radon activities in spas were found in places with thermal pools. Radon concentration in waters used in spas ranged from 0.5 Bq/l to 384 Bq/l. The influence of radon activity concentration in water on radon activity in the air inside the spa was observed. It was found to increase indoor radon with increasing radon in the waters. Correlation with indoor radon and radon in water was more significant for baths and less significant for pool waters. In the cases filling of the bath from water taps, significantly contribute to the increased radon was observed in the pool and bath areas of the spa.
The article describes three interlaboratory experiments concerning 222Rn determination in water samples. The first two experiments were carried out with the use of artificial radon waters prepared by the Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise (LER), Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków in 2014 and 2018. The third experiment was performed using natural environment waters collected in the vicinity of the former uranium mine in Kowary in 2016. Most of the institutions performing radon in water measurements in Poland were gathered in the Polish Radon Centre Network, and they participated in the experiments. The goal of these exercises was to evaluate different measurement techniques used routinely in Polish laboratories and the laboratories’ proficiency of radon in water measurements. In the experiment performed in 2018, the reference values of 222Rn concentration in water were calculated based on the method developed at LER. The participants’ results appeared to be worse for low radon concentration than for high radon concentrations. The conclusions drawn on that base indicated the weaknesses of the used methods and probably the sampling. The interlaboratory experiments, in term, can help to improve the participants’ skills and reliability of their results.
Introduction. On 20-26 October 2017, nursing students representing the Medical University of Lublin had a chance to take part in the fifth European Meeting and Conference of Nursing Students in Magdeburg.
Aim. This manuscript is aimed at analyzing the nurses' education system in Germany and presenting the activities of the German Nurses Association (DBfK).
Summary. There are several paths of education for nurses in Germany, academic education is one of the options. Nurses associated in the German Nursing Association (DBfK) strive to increase the interest of nurses in tertiary education, as well as make efforts to create a nursing self-government.
At the beginning of the year 2016, the representatives of the Polish Radon Centre decided to organize proficiency tests (PTs) for measurements of radon gas and radon decay products in the air, involving radon monitors and laboratory passive techniques. The Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity of the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Katowice, became responsible for the organization of the PT exercises. The main reason to choose that location was the radon chamber in GIG with a volume of 17 m3, the biggest one in Poland. Accordingly, 13 participants from Poland plus one participant from Germany expressed their interest. The participants were invited to inform the organizers about what types of monitors and methods they would like to check during the tests. On this basis, the GIG team prepared the proposal for the schedule of exercises, such as the required level(s) of radon concentrations, the number and periods of tests, proposed potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels and also the overall period of PT. The PT activity was performed between 6th and 17th June 2016. After assessment of the results, the agreement between radon monitors and other measurement methods was confirmed. In the case of PAEC monitors and methods of measurements, the results of PT exercises were consistent and confirmed the accuracy of the calibration procedures used by the participants. The results of the PAEC PTs will be published elsewhere; in this paper, only the results of radon intercomparison are described.