Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Jacek Pasławski
The authors of the article pay their attention to the lack of a generally accepted classification of the cartographic presentation methods. The classification, which was described in the Ratajski’s handbook (1989) in the mostly extensive way, is commonly used in the Polish literature. According to the authors, it would be appropriate to modify one of the types of symbols (quantitative ones) as an independent method of data presentation at the quantitative level, in addition to the method of diagram, choropleth, dot method and isoline one.
Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa and Jacek Pasławski
The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin – the first choropleth map – provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.
Beata Konopska and Jacek Pasławski
Different approaches to the adaptation of foreign geographical atlases, making an effort of classification, against a background of the intensive activity of Polish publishers in the scope of adaptation of these atlases during the last decade of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty first century have been discussed in this article. Moreover the usefulness and correctness of the adapted publications as well as the fundamental problems connected with the use of Polish geographical names have been discussed from the point of view of a Polish user; also the problems related to the layout, range of content and scope of symbolism expected by a Polish user have been discussed.
Jacek Pasławski, Jolanta Korycka-Skorupa, Tomasz Nowacki and Tomasz Opach
The online Atlas kartograficznych metod prezentacji [Atlas of cartographic presentation methods, hereinafter the Atlas] is a research project being carried out at the Department of Cartography of the University of Warsaw. The aim of the project is to systematize knowledge about the use of cartographic presentation methods. This study discusses selected issues related to two of the five presentation methods analysed in the project, viz. the choropleth map and the diagram map. A rational application of two quite commonly-used presentation methods leads to a number of problems. These problems are most easily visible during attempts to program its implementation in the web-based Atlas and are largely due to the difficulties with drawing a clear boundary between what is a good and a bad map. For this reason, the system operator’s skill and eye for the graphics of semi-automated visualisation seem to be of key importance.
Piotr Skrzypczak, Dorota Zyśko, Urszula Pasławska, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak, Adrian Janiszewski, Liliana Kiczak, Jacek Bania, Maciej Zacharski, Alicja Tomaszek, Ilona Rybińska, Józef Nicpoń, Robert Pasławski, Jacek Gajek, Ewa A. Jankowska and Piotr Ponikowski
The aim of the study was to assess the atrioventricular conduction in the model of porcine pacing induced tachycardiomyopathy. Fifty-one swine were examined: 27 were paced and 24 served as a control group. Every 4 weeks, the animals were anaesthetised for 1 h and an ECG Holter was performed. Thirty minutes after the onset of anaesthesia, P-R and R-R intervals were measured. Each result was assigned to the subgroup according to the animal’s weight and the presence or absence of previous pacing. P-R interval was longer in animals after at least 4 weeks of rapid ventricular stimulation than in adjusted group of the animals according to the body mass. Multivariate analysis has showed that longer P-R interval was related to male gender, higher body mass, slower heart rate, and history of previous pacing. Chronic ventricular pacing led to the slowing of atrioventricular conduction. The presence of differences in the duration of R-R intervals between groups was only found in swine weighing 120-139 kg. The R-R interval was shorter in paced animals, whereas PR interval was longer in that group, indicating that PR prolongation is related to electrical or structural remodelling of the cardiac conductive tissue but not increased sympathetic nervous system activity, which is expected to produce corresponding changes in PR and R-R intervals.