Introduction:Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most frequently reported causes of foodborne bacterial enteric disease worldwide. The main source of these microorganisms is contaminated food, especially of poultry origin. There are several molecular methods for differentiation of Campylobacter isolates at the subgenus level, and one of these is porA-typing based on the sequencing of the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) encoding gene. The aim of the study was to test the molecular relationship of C. jejuni strains isolated at different points along the poultry food chain and assess the population structure of the isolates.
Material and Methods: A total of 451 C. jejuni were used in the study, and a DNA fragment of 630 bp of the MOMP encoding gene was amplified and sequenced.
Results: One hundred and ten sequence types were identified, with 69 (62.7%) unique to the isolates' origin and 30 not present in the database. The most prevalent nucleotide variant 1 was detected in 37 (8.2%) strains. These isolates were identified in all poultry sources tested, especially in faeces (15 isolates) but also in poultry carcasses and meat (11 isolates in each).
Conclusion: The porA typing method was highly discriminative for C. jejuni of poultry origin since the Simpson's diversity index (D) achieved a value of 0.876, indicating considerable diversity in the bacterial population tested. The method may be further used for epidemiological investigation purposes.
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a toxin mainly occurring naturally in contaminated puffer fish, which are a culinary delicacy in Japan. It is also detected in various marine organisms like globefish, starfish, sunfish, stars, frogs, crabs, snails, Australian blue-ringed octopuses, and bivalve molluscs. TTX is produced by marine bacteria that are consumed mainly by fish of the Tetraodontidae family and other aquatic animals. TTX poisoning through consuming marine snails has recently begun to occur over a wider geographical extent through Taiwan, China, and Europe. This neurotoxin causes food intoxication and poses an acute risk to public health. The aim of this review is to present the most recent information about TTX and its analogues with particular regard to toxicity, methods of analysis, and risk to humans of exposure.
Introduction: Growing consumption of shellfish is associated with an increased risk of food poisoning. The study was carried out on live bivalve molluscs available on the Polish market between 2009 and 2013. Material and Methods: ELISA was used for the determination of the following marine biotoxins: paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), amnaesic shellfish poison (ASP), and diarrhoeic shellfish poison (DSP). The molluscs, of which seven species were examined, were obtained from wholesale companies and markets. Results: Marine biotoxins were detected below the permitted levels in 67.6% of the samples. The maximum amounts of PSP and ASP biotoxins were found in great scallops (532.6 μg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively) and the peak for DSP was in blue mussels (107 μg/kg). Conclusion: The analysis of toxicological status of raw bivalve molluscs available on the market in Poland indicates that they are safe for consumers.
In 2015 in the European Union member states listeriosis caused 270 deaths. Food is the route of transmission in 99% of all human infection cases. Several studies from different countries have shown that the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in food can be as high as 58.3%. One of the most important ways to protect food from these microorganisms is to prevent the spread of the bacteria at processing plants at different stages of food production chain. The ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in extreme conditions and to form biofilms on various surfaces is a significant challenge for food safety. Removal of these bacteria from niches in processing plants is difficult and requires the use of sanitisers and precise equipment cleaning. The presence of L. monocytogenes in processing environment at slaughterhouses, deli meat factories or in retail may be a reason of cross-contamination. Proper hygienic systems applied by workers in food preparing places and knowledge about different routes of spreading of these bacteria may effectively decrease the risk of food contamination. Standardised legal regulations and control of meat product manufacture should be a fundamental way to protect food from L. monocytogenes contamination.
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the presence of biogenic amines, particularly histamine, in various food products, discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation, and address potential toxicity and safe limits in food. Biogenic amines are natural components of animal and plant raw materials, where they are present at concentrations appearing non-harmful to human health. Their increased content in foods results from the activity of endogenous enzymes or from the microbial decarboxylation of amino acids during controlled or spontaneous fermentation, processing, storage, and distribution. General knowledge of biogenic amines, factors favouring their formation and their safe limits in food are useful in preventing exposure to their toxic effects on the human body. Based on this information, appropriate prophylaxis can be applied, which will consist primarily of maintenance of good hygiene standards of raw materials and products, employment of appropriate processing procedures and upkeep of sanitary food storage conditions.
One hundred and nine samples of honey representing different botanical types were microbiologically retested for the total number of aerobic bacteria per 1 g, the presence of anaerobic bacteria in 0.1 g, and number of yeasts and moulds per 1 g after one year of storage. The samples displayed different levels of microbiological contamination. The mean of total number of aerobic bacteria varied from 1.9 x 101 CFU/g to 4.6 x 103 CFU/g depending on the type of honey. This value, in comparison with year 2010 was lower in the case of 75 samples (68.8%), higher in 14 samples (12.8%), and stable in the remaining 20 samples (18.4%). The mean number of moulds and yeasts was 9.8 x 101 CFU/g and it was lower in 46 samples (42.2%). In 46 samples no changes were noted. The presence of anaerobic spore forming bacteria was noted in 18 samples. The presence of these microorganisms in 73 honey samples (67.0%) did not change since 2010.
Raw, inhibitors free milk was spiked with penicillin G, ampicillin, cloxacillin, and ceftiofur at the levels 1 × MRL, 1.5 × MRL, and 2 × MRL, and oxytetracycline at the levels 100 ppb (MRL), 500 ppb and 700 ppb. The samples were stored at 4 ± 2 C and -18 ± 2 C and were tested every day and week, respectively. The analyses were performed using microbiological diffusion test Delvotest SP-NT and receptor assay CHARM ROSA MRL BL/TET for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines. In cooled samples antibiotics were detected up to 72 h. After this time, the samples were acidulated and not suitable for investigations. In frozen samples, depending on type and concentration of antibiotics, these substances were detected from one week (penicillin G - 4 ppb) to 35 weeks (ampicillin and ceftiofur).
In the present study, 25 Escherichia coli strains isolated from beef, pork, and poultry meat, and producing extendedspectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) (18 strains) or AmpC- cephalosporinases (7 strains) were tested for antimicrobial resistance using the minimum inhibitory concentration method with 16 antimicrobial agents. All examined strains were resistant to ampicillin and the first-generation cephalosporins. Variable resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins (40%-100% among ESBLproducing strains and 0-72% among AmpC-producing strains) was noted. Less than 30% of examined strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin. All isolates were susceptible to the fourth-generation cephalosporins, cephalosporins connected with inhibitors of β-lactamases, carbapenems, and gentamycin
A total of 2668 swabs from poultry (n = 2166), pig (n = 311), and cattle (n = 191) carcasses were collected in slaughterhouses all over Poland and tested for the presence of Campylobacter. It was found that 1319 (49.4%) of them were contaminated with these bacteria. The percentages of the positive samples were different in each year of the study and the highest proportion of Campylobacter contaminated samples occurred in 2009, when 64.1% of investigated carcasses were positive. On the other hand, the lowest prevalence of Campylobacter was observed in 2013, in the last year of the survey. In all kind of carcass samples both C. jejuni and C. coli were identified, although the pork meat was more contaminated with C. coli (75.3% of positive samples) than with C. jejuni (24.7%), whereas poultry was nearly equally positive for C. jejuni and C. coli (50.6% and 49.4% respectively). The analysis of seasonal contamination of the carcasses revealed that more positive results were found during the second half of year than between January and June. The prevalence of Campylobacter showed that in all provinces, except one (Pomorskie), the mean percentage of the positive samples was above 40%. The most contaminated samples were identified in Lubelskie (69.3%) and Zachodniopomorskie (66.3%) regions. The obtained results showed that slaughtered animals in Poland, especially broilers, were often contaminated with Campylobacter, either C. jejuni or C. coli.
The aim of the study was a preliminary determination of occurrence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)- and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli) in raw meat samples collected from slaughter-houses located in different regions of Poland. A total of 141 samples were tested, comprising 78 pork samples, 44 beef samples, and 19 chicken meat samples. Isolated and identified E. coli strains were examined for the ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamases production by the use of four disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration tests. All strains positive in one or both tests were examined by PCR for the presence of the blaCTX, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCMY-2 group genes. During the study, 154 E. coli strains were isolated from 95 samples. Among these, 18 (11.7%) strains were identified in phenotypic tests as ESBL-producing and seven (4.5%) strains as AmpC-positive. The presence of the genes encoding selected ESBL-s (TEM, CTX, SHV) was identified in 14 of the strains recognised as ESBLpositive in phenotypic tests. All AmpC-positive isolates showed the presence of the CMY-2 group encoding genes. One of these strains had also the CTX-M and TEM genes, and four of them expressed the TEM marker.