Arkadiusz Nędzarek, Agnieszka Tórz and Jacek Kubiak
Oxygen conditions and trophic state of Lake Głębokie (Szczecin, Poland) in the years 2008-2010
The research in Lake Głębokie was conducted in the years 2008-2010. Sampling from three selected sites was designed in such a way that vertical profiles of the characteristics of interest were obtained. Measurements were performed to determine the content of dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation expressed as a percentage, water temperature, total phosphorus, chlorophyll a, dry seston mass, and Secchi disk depth. During the course of a year, water temperature varied from 0.58°C to 24.72°C. However, a permanent thermal stratification was not observed in the summer season due to complete water mixing. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water varied within a range that started at hard-to-measure insignificant values and reached up to 9.63 mg O2 l-1, while oxygen saturation reached a maximum of 116% O2. At the same time, it was observed that oxygen conditions gradually worsened as the depth became greater. The largest oxygen deficits occurred in the winter season of 2009-2010. The oxygen conditions were typical for an eutrophic lake. Its high trophic state was confirmed by an analysis performed using the method proposed by Carlson (1977) as well as by an analysis performed according to the directives of the OECD (1982). The trophic state of this lake is borderline eutrophic and hypertrophic. The oxygen conditions found in this lake ought to be seen as not beneficial to fish.
Jacek Kubiak, Sylwia Machula, Katarzyna Stepanowska and Marcin Biernaczyk
: Between the years 1970-2010, using the Carlson model criteria, the rate of eutrophication and trophic level of the largest dimictic lakes of Western Pomerania were studied. It was found that during the testing period, Lake Ińsko Duże was a mesotrophic reservoir, and Lakes Wądół, Będzin and Ińsko Małe were characterized by a highly advanced eutrophy. Lakes Woświn, Morzycko, Krzemień, Chłop Duży and Jelenin had borderline characteristics between being mesotrophic and eutrophic, while Lakes Narost, Chłop Mały and Wisala were typically eutrophic reservoirs. During the study, changes in the trophic level of Lakes Ińsko Duże and Morzycko and Woświn were noted. The first of the reservoirs listed had the best water quality in the second half of the 1990s, during which time the other two lakes had the worst water quality, taking into account the whole study period. Such changes were not observed in the other reservoirs examined.
The paper presents studies over the changes in the characteristic impedance of selected type of textile signal lines (TSLs) during mechanical loads. The article describes the construction of tested lines, the measurement method, and statistical analysis of the collected results.
Jacek Kubiak, Sylwia Machula, Dorota Oszkinis and Dominik Rokicki
The largest lakes of the River Tywa basin i.e. Strzeszowskie, Dołgie, Swobnica and Dłużec (north-west Poland, West Pomeranian Lakeland) were studied in the period 2008–2013, usually in a six week cycle. The aim of the study was to determine the degree of anthropogenic pressure on the lakes. Anthropogenic pressure was assessed against the natural vulnerability of lakes to degradation and the actual rate of eutrophication, with particular consideration of the catchment areas. Catchments of the studied lakes were classified as III class – catchment with moderate possibility of matter supply to lakes. Lakes Swobnica and Dłużec are characterised by low resistance to degradation. Lake Strzeszowskie is categorised as having moderate resistance and Lake Dołgie is non-resistant to degradation and highly susceptible to external pressure. The rate of eutrophication of lakes Strzeszowskie and Dłużec was found to be moderate, whereas lakes Dołgie and Swobnica show a high rate of eutrophication. The analysis of nutrient loading reaching the waters of the aforementioned lakes shows that the main area source is arable land, and the fundamental point source is the inflow of river waters to each of the analysed reservoirs. Nutrient loading supplied by the river is several times higher than area load. Such conditions require protective action to be taken within the catchment area and particularly, intensive implementation of good agricultural practice. In the studied lakes, there is a significant predominance of incoming nutrient loadings over dangerous and admissible loads.
Józef Piotr Antonowicz, Jacek Kubiak and Sylwia Machula
Analyses were conducted concerning the accumulation of four metals representing the group of macroelements, i.e. sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium in two ponds located in the city of Słupsk. Water samples for chemical analyses were collected from the surface microlayer using a Garrett net. At the same time subsurface water samples were collected. Concentrations of metals were determined using a mass spectrometer. Generally, amounts of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were similar in surface microlayer and subsurface water. Only in the case of potassium and calcium was low enrichment observed in the surface microlayer in one pond, while the greatest extent for magnesium enrichment was observed in the spring period.
Miłosz Tkaczyk, Katarzyna A. Kubiak, Jacek Sawicki, Justyna A. Nowakowska and Tomasz Oszako
Phosphite preparations are now an important alternative in plant protection against new, invasive pathogens of the genus Phytophthora and/or Pythium. It is crucial to intervene when alien, invasive oomycetes are carried to plantations or forest stands and attack fine roots via zoospores. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of phosphite application to induce resistance to tree pathogens. Phosphate-based fertilizers have been used successfully in nurseries, where application is relatively easy by means of foliar sprays. the traditional fungicides, which are effective in combating fungi, however, fail to control oomycetes. Instead, they mask the disease, which, in turn, causes serious damage to seedlings after they have been planted in a suitable environment. Moreover, the number of effective fungicides available for forest plant protection has continued to decrease in the last decade. The effectiveness of the chemicals is reduced due to their frequent use and their similarity in terms of the active compound or the mechanism of action. Given the low diversity of active compounds, it is necessary to monitor the development of resistance of pathogens to fungicides by means of molecular biology (sequencing and quantitative PCR). Minimising the undesired side effects of chemicals on both, mycorrhizal fungi and pathogens can be achieved by strict adherence to rigorous security measures and, where possible, frequently changing the active compounds to alternatives such as phosphites. The significance of phosphate and phosphite uptake by trees is still a matter of debate, especially under field conditions. Nevertheless, phosphites are environmentally friendly compounds, which constitute an alternative or complement to the traditional chemicals (in accordance with the Directive on Integrated Plant management).