Marian Cichy, Zbigniew Kneba and Jacek Kropiwnicki
With a single approach to modeling elements of different physical nature, the method of Bond Graph (BG) is particularly well suited for modeling energy systems consisting of mechanical, thermal, electrical and hydraulic elements that operate in the power system engine room. The paper refers to the earlier presented  new concept of thermal process modeling using the BG method. The authors own suggestions for determining causality in models of thermal processes created by the said concept were given. The analysis of causality makes it possible to demonstrate the model conflicts that prevent the placement of state equations which allows for the direct conduct of simulation experiments. Attention has been drawn to the link between the energy systems models of thermal processes with models of elements of different physical nature. Two examples of determining causality in models of complex energy systems of thermal elements have been presented. The firs relates to the electrical system associated with the process of heat exchange. The second is a model of the mechanical system associated with the thermodynamic process.
Marian Cichy, Jacek Kropiwnicki and Zbigniew Kneba
The main advantage of the use of the Bond Graphs method and State Equations for modeling energy systems with a complex structure (marine power plants, hybrid vehicles, etc.) is the ability to model the system components of different physical nature using identical theoretical basis. The paper presents a method of modeling thermal energy storage, which is in line with basic BG theory. Critical comments have been put forward concerning multiport energy storage introduced by other authors or the so-called C-field. In suggested approach, the decision not to use pseudo Bond Graphs has been justified as not being in line with basic BG theory. On the basis of molecular physics it was considered that the state variable, in physical and mathematical sense, should be temperature rather than entropy. Examples of the application of the proposed approach to thermodynamic processes and heat exchange have been presented. The application of a single graph as a model for thermal energy storage has been illustrated by a way of numerical simulation examples.