Ongoing climate change is mainly evident as increased in average temperature. It is expected to have a significant impact on world’s biomes, with forest ecosystems especially vulnerable to these changes. The effect of climate change on forests is both indirect, through its impact on various tree species of different ecological requirements, and direct, through its impact on all living components of the forest ecosystem. Among the latter, insects are the group of the greatest importance, including species detrimental to forest health. The impact of climate change on forest insects may be reflected in their distribution, phenology, activity, number of generations and, indirectly, through impact on their natural enemies. Predicting the future direction and pace of the climate change, as well as direct and indirect consequences of its effect on forest insects is difficult and often subject to considerable inaccuracy. The paper presents a review of data from the published literature in this area of study. The influence of the basic climate parameters, temperature and humidity, on forest herbivore insects is discussed, particularly in the context of the most probable scenarios of climate change, i.e. the gradual increase in the average temperature. Observed and projected impacts of climate change in relation to the influence of herbivorous insects on forest ecosystems are characterized. We present some of the possible adaptation strategies of forest management to the expected climate changes.
Tomasz Jaworski, Radosław Plewa and Jacek Hilszczański
First report of Dryadaula caucasica (Zagulajev, 1970) from Central Europe and records of further rare tineids (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) in Białowieża Primeval Forest
Dryadaula caucasica (Zagulajev, 1970) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae: Dryadaulinae) is recorded for the first time in Central Europe. Two specimens were collected in Białowieża Forest, NE Poland, by rearing from the sporocarp of bracket fungus and by intercepting the adult moth with the use of a barrier trap. This record of D. caucasica from Poland is the fourth known locality of this species, and is situated more than 1700 km the nearest other known location. Characteristics of the species' habitat, notes on its biology, and a distribution map are presented. New records of Agnathosia mendicella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775), Montescardia tessulatellus (Zeller, 1846) and Triaxomera fulvimitrella (Sodoffsky, 1830) from Białowieża Forest are also given.
The following paper presents a fuzzy assessed spatial relations-based approach to detect a set of visual markers on a rotating steel cylinder previously discussed by the authors. Presented algorithm uses fuzzy inference system based on fuzzy assessed objects’ shape, orientation and mutual relative position in an input image.
Paweł Fiderek, Tomasz Jaworski, Robert Banasiak and Jacek Kucharski
The following paper presents results of common clustering algorithms use, both crisp and fuzzy, for flow pattern recognition of two-phase gas-liquid flows observed in horizontal pipeline. Obtained results of HCM, FCM, and kNN clustering algorithms were presented in a form of confusion matrix and compared via its prediction performance.
The aim of the article is to identify the main determinants of categories ascribed to scientific research units in the field of Economic Sciences in 2017. In the first part of the article, the legal and substantive basis for the evaluation of such institutions is presented. The second part of the text provides a verification of the evaluation assumptions included in the legal regulations (their advisability and significance). The verification is based on the statistical analysis of the obtained results. There are only two criteria out of four that determine the ascribed scientific categories: the first criterion refers to scientific achievements (publications) and the second one refers to scientific potential (scientific promotion and academic staff mobility). The other criteria - the third one (commercialisation of the research) and the fourth one (impact of the research exerted on economy and its internationalisation) did not affect the comprehensive evaluation in any significant way. The number of registered academic employees was not of any significance either.
Radosław Plewa, Jacek Hilszczański, Tomasz Jaworski and Grzegorz Tarwacki
This paper presents the results of our studies on the preferences of the flower chafer, Protaetia speciosissima (Scopoli, 1786). The studies were carried out in 2009-2010 in the Forest Districts of Hajnówka, Krotoszyn, Łochów, Pińczów, and Puławy, located in various regions of Poland. Barrier traps consisting of a Moericke’s trap and a Malaise’s trap combined with a barrier of fine net were used to collect beetles. Traps were installed at two heights in over 100 years old oak stands, with the upper level in the canopy layer (mean height of 20.5 m) and the lower level adjacent to the tree trunk (mean height of 4.5 m). During two-year study, we collected a total of 328 specimens of P. speciosissima, 299 from the upper- and 29 from the lower forest layer. Thus, we confirmed strong preferences of the adult P. speciosissima for the canopy layer in oak stands. Furthermore, our observations on phenology indicate that the second half of June and all of July are the months with the highest population density of P. speciosissima. This paper also proposes modes of action for conservation of the species
Tomasz Jaworski, Jacek Hilszczański, Radosław Plewa and Andrzej Szczepkowski
New records for twenty species of saproxylic tineid moths (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) from the Białowieża Forest (NE Poland) are presented. Most species were recorded on the basis of laboratory breeding of the adult moths from the sporocarps of wood-decaying fungi inhabited by the larvae. Some species were captured using barrier traps or were collected at light. One species, Dryadaula irinae (Savenkov, 1989), is recorded for the first time from Poland and three others, Nemaxera betulinella (Paykull, 1785), Nemapogon fungivorella (Benander, 1939) and Elatobia fuliginosella Lienig & Zeller, 1846, are recognized as new for the fauna of the Białowieża Forest. The current distribution in Poland of each species is briefly discussed, and some remarks on its biology are given
Jacek Jaworski, Katarzyna Sokołowska and Tomasz Kondraszuk
Purposes: The main goal of the paper is to determine the significance of selected sources of strategic information, used by Polish farmers in decision making. In addition, an attempt was made to determine the factors impacting the evaluation of those sources among the traits of the farmer and his farm.
Methodology: Data was gathered using the questionnaire method and analysed with standard tools of descriptive statistics.
Findings: The farmers deemed personalised sources of strategic information the most important, especially agricultural advisers, input suppliers and buyers of agricultural products. From among institutional (non-personalised) sources, local government and the chamber of agriculture were significant. Business information agencies and survey companies are the least important sources for farmers. The characteristics of the surroundings of the farm - specifically, its geographic location and the size of settlement where it is located proved to have the widest impact on the evaluation of the sources included in the study. From among the organisational factors, only farm size has a significant impact.
Research limitations/implications: The study was confined to a representative group of farmers in Poland. A closed list of sources of strategic information was used.
Originality/value: The study results contribute to the knowledge on the functioning of Polish agriculture and may also be used in comparative studies, characterising this sector’s diversity within Europe. They can in turn contribute to properly focusing on supporting the policy of balanced agriculture development in the EU.
Tomasz Jaworski, Jacek Kucharski, Andrzej Frączyk and Piotr Urbanek
In the paper the computerized system for the surface temperature control of the rotating cylinder has been presented. In the presented solution, an IR camera works as a source of information about the thermal state of cylinder surface for the rest of the system. The necessary image processing algorithm as a basis for a control algorithm has been developed. An algorithm for the automatic localization of the cold cylinder by an IR camera using a set of thermal markers and a fuzzy recognition algorithm was developed. It enables one to calibrate the system properly in various operating conditions.