In response to the information published in ‘Forest Research Papers’ (vol. 77(4), 2016), regarding the problem of the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) in the Białowieża Forest, we present our viewpoint on this issue. The role of the European spruce bark beetle in the Białowieża Forest is discussed based on the experience gained in Europe’s forests. We present the effects of I. typographus outbreaks on forest biodiversity as well as outbreak mitigation in the context of the processes taking place in semi-natural forests.
Ongoing climate change is mainly evident as increased in average temperature. It is expected to have a significant impact on world’s biomes, with forest ecosystems especially vulnerable to these changes. The effect of climate change on forests is both indirect, through its impact on various tree species of different ecological requirements, and direct, through its impact on all living components of the forest ecosystem. Among the latter, insects are the group of the greatest importance, including species detrimental to forest health. The impact of climate change on forest insects may be reflected in their distribution, phenology, activity, number of generations and, indirectly, through impact on their natural enemies. Predicting the future direction and pace of the climate change, as well as direct and indirect consequences of its effect on forest insects is difficult and often subject to considerable inaccuracy. The paper presents a review of data from the published literature in this area of study. The influence of the basic climate parameters, temperature and humidity, on forest herbivore insects is discussed, particularly in the context of the most probable scenarios of climate change, i.e. the gradual increase in the average temperature. Observed and projected impacts of climate change in relation to the influence of herbivorous insects on forest ecosystems are characterized. We present some of the possible adaptation strategies of forest management to the expected climate changes.
This paper presents the results of our studies on the preferences of the flower chafer, Protaetia speciosissima (Scopoli, 1786). The studies were carried out in 2009-2010 in the Forest Districts of Hajnówka, Krotoszyn, Łochów, Pińczów, and Puławy, located in various regions of Poland. Barrier traps consisting of a Moericke’s trap and a Malaise’s trap combined with a barrier of fine net were used to collect beetles. Traps were installed at two heights in over 100 years old oak stands, with the upper level in the canopy layer (mean height of 20.5 m) and the lower level adjacent to the tree trunk (mean height of 4.5 m). During two-year study, we collected a total of 328 specimens of P. speciosissima, 299 from the upper- and 29 from the lower forest layer. Thus, we confirmed strong preferences of the adult P. speciosissima for the canopy layer in oak stands. Furthermore, our observations on phenology indicate that the second half of June and all of July are the months with the highest population density of P. speciosissima. This paper also proposes modes of action for conservation of the species