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  • Author: Jacek Długosz x
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Clay minerals from Weichselian glaciolimnic sediments of the Sępopolska Plain (NE Poland)

Glaciolimnic deposits sampled from three sedimentation reservoirs located on the Sępopolska Plain (northeastern Poland) were investigated. The material under study was deposited in the recession phase of the Pomeranian phase of Vistula (Weichselian) glaciation. The clay fraction was separated by centrifugation after preparation according to Jackson. Mineralogical investigations were done by X-ray diffraction. The analysed deposits had a similar complex composition of clay minerals. The main components were illites mixed with the illite/smectite mineral with percentages < 10 % S. Another part were minerals of the illite/smectite type which had differentiated content of smectite layers (mainly 80-90 % S). There were also chlorite minerals, probably as mixed layer minerals of the chlorite/vermiculite type or HIV with a negligible amount of chlorite layers. The results indicated that all the deposits were of the same age as well as similar deposited material and the samples are different from typical Pomeranian till and typical limnic material of the same age. Small differences observed among the deposits of specific sedimentation reservoirs were probably the result of later processes.


Soils in two river valleys (Rozoga and Omulew) in north-eastern Poland were investigated. The valleys are located on a sandy outwash plain formed during the Vistulian (Weichelian) Glaciation. The soils are drained, used as meadows and classified as Fluvic Umbric Gleysol, Fluvic Mollic Gleysol, and Eutric Fluvic Histic Gleysol (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The aim of the study was to identify the composition of mineral matter and to determine the types of clay minerals and intermediate stages of clay minerals by means of the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The studied floodplain soils are rich in organic matter and contain considerable mineral alluvial admixtures. The content of clay fraction (< 2.0 μm) is low (0.02–5.61% of total mineral matter). Higher content of clay fraction was noted in soils with elevated content of organic matter, which can be evidence of simultaneous accumulation of both components. In deeper depressions occurring in river valleys (oxbow lakes), a specific deposit termed silty telmatic mud (16–24% TOC, 50–75% silt, 3.1–5.6% clay fraction content) was accumulated. On the other hand, in shallow depressions, a muddy deposit was accumulated (5.7–7.7% TOC, sandy texture). The main identified clay minerals were smectite, vermiculite, illite and kaolinite as well as variety of mixed-layer clays. Alluvial clay admixture in studied soil formations showed mineralogical similarity to typical floodplain mineral soils (Fluvisols). Mineral fraction of studied soils is mostly of allochthonous origin.


The aim of the research was to compare the results of texture analyses of glaciolimnic sediments deposited in the basins of ice-dammed lakes origin in north eastern Poland. The study was carried out using aerometric method, pipette method and laser diffraction method. The studied soils were classified as Haplic and Mollic Vertisol, Vertic Cambisol, and Gleyic Chernozem. The soils were formed from clayey (clay, heavy clay), loamy (loam, clay loam, sand clay loam) and silty (silt loam, clay loam) deposits. The studied soils did not contain fractions > 2.0 mm. The amounts of clay fraction (< 0.002 mm) measured by areometric and pipette methods were similar and strongly correlated. In comparison to laser diffraction method, these amounts were 3-4-fold higher. The sub-fraction of fine silt (0.02-0.002 mm) predominated in soil formations analyzed by laser diffraction method. In comparison to areometric or pipette method, the amounts of fine silt were 2-4 fold higher. Basing on the calculated sedimentological indices, it was stated that the examined soils were well sorted and the mean grain diameter (GSS) was very low and did not exceed 0.005 mm in areometric and pipette methods, and 0.011 mm in laser diffraction method for clay sediments.


The paper presents the impact of UGmax enricher on soil physical and water retention properties. The experiment was established in 2005 in a 2 ha field 9 km from Lidzbark Warmiński in the village of Budniki. The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and Luvisols (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015), and they were formed from glaciolimnic deposits. Soil bulk density, soil particle density, texture, total porosity and water retention properties using low and high-pressure chambers were determined. The use of UGmax enricher on loamy soils used as arable lands in temperate climate of north-eastern Poland caused significant decrease of soil bulk density, increase of available water capacity and readily available water capacity. Statistically significant differences between examined soil properties were observed in most studied years.