The insertion of a city bike that complements the public transport system in large agglomerations, and mainly in the most crowded city centers, seems to be a very good solution that can contribute to reducing air pollution and reducing noise levels. In many situations, bicycle transport can perfectly fill deficiencies in public transport, e.g. at night, on holidays and on days when buses run to a limited extent. The article presents the functioning of the city bike system in Lublin since 2014. The first part of this article presents basic data on the city bike system in Lublin together with a map of bicycle stations, followed by data on the number of rentals, rental time, number of bicycle users, etc. Selected user opinions obtained on the basis of the survey were also presented. Finally, based on the analysis, final conclusions were formulated. The city bike system is used by about 10% of the population of the city of Lublin.
Distribution of dairy products is one of the most important activities in the production process deciding about the organization of production and the course of technological processes. Such products should be provided with suitable containers with protective coatings, maintain the appropriate temperature during transport, and most importantly, the sterility of the means of transport. Choosing the right packaging for perishable products is not an easy matter, as it has to fulfil many functions. The article presents some aspects of the packaging system and legal conditions for the distribution of selected dairy products. In the first chapter, short introduction for the issue of packaging market of dairy products is presented. Second chapter outlines the selected legal acts regarding food transport in Poland. Selected aspects in terms of choosing the type of packaging and used materials are described in chapter 3. The last chapter contains conclusions and final remarks for the distribution of selected dairy products.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect on selected mechanical properties, of adding recast materials to the NiCrMo alloy of newly produced castings.
Three groups of dental alloy NiCrMo (trade named Remanium CS+) were prepared by mixing 50% new alloy to alloy remnants from previous castings. The specimens in the first casting group used 100% new alloy and served as control (C1). The second group consisted of equal amounts of new alloy and alloy remnants cast only once (C2). The third group contained 50% of new alloy and alloy cast twice (C3). Microstructural analysis was performed and the chemical composition, hardness and the metal-ceramic bond strength were assessed. In addition, EDS analysis (mapping) was undertaken. Hardness and bond strength results were also statistically analysed.
In spite of the fact that recasting brought about small changes in hardness and chemical composition (C, Cr and Mo), these effects were found to not affect their functional properties in the oral cavity. Still, significant differences between new alloy and the recasted groups (p < 0.05) were demonstrated in the course of statistical analysis of Vickers hardness test (for α = 0.05). All analysed research groups have a similar average adhesion at 48.51÷49.24 MPa (p > 0.05).
The recasting procedure described in the paper can be done safely in dentistry. If previously casted material is used, it should be mixed with new material. The use of the material prepared in this way can lower the costs of NiCrMo castings.
The continuous technological development requires the use of modern materials also in agricultural engineering. Knowledge of the characteristics of tribological materials pairs cooperating with each other is useful for developing sliding nodes of agricultural machinery. Tribological properties of materials should be assessed for selection of technological materials beyond the economic criterion. The article presents analysis of the characteristics of tribological ball-on-disc wear of polymeric materials used as sliding elements for farm machines. Tribological tests were carried out under dry friction for a polymer-metal pair, and a wear rate and friction coefficient of the sample; the signs of wear were submitted to SEM observations.
In case of traditional harvesting methods the losses of perennial grass seeds may reach 45-50% of the biological yield in unfavourable weather conditions. The paper presents the results of comparative assessment efficiency of various methods of harvesting of perennial seed grass. It was found that the use of special devices and structures in combine harvesters allows increase of yield of technological mixture to the combine tank, degree of seed threshing to 93% and limit the losses of crop to 20-29%. Harvesting of seeds in non-waste technology with harvesting of the entire yield with later transport, drying, threshing and seeds cleaning in stationary devices results in reduction of losses by 5 to 10% but it leads to the increase of energy inputs by 24-25% in comparison to traditional with threshing method. Harvesting with a combing method of plant seeds on a trunk in „Невейки” technology results in the increase of the seeds harvesting to 86-98% of a biological yield.
The maritime transport is particularly exposed to danger due to the environment of its operations. These are the threat dependent and independent of human e.g. environmental, safety health and life of humans or belongings. In spite of attempts to limit the risk of danger, it is impossible to completely eliminate it. The article presents some aspects of the state of transportation safety in the Baltic Sea from Statistical Yearbook of Maritime Economy and Helcom as well as attempt the undertaken to analyses the security state of this sea area in 2009 to 2015.