Mariusz Kormanek, Jacek Banach and Paweł Sowa
The paper presents the results of an analysis of the influence of soil bulk density in a forest nursery plot on the growth and quality parameters of Scots pine and European beech seedlings. Particular density variants were obtained using a tractor device exerting controlled pressure on the soil, while field examinations were performed on an area of ‘Kłaj’ forest nursery in Niepołomice Forest District. Three series of plots were prepared for each species, applying a unit pressure of the values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kPa, corresponding to the dry bulk density in the range of 1.03-1.19 g cm-3, and control plots without the pressure. Seeds of the examined species were sown on the prepared plots, and after 6 months of growth the seedlings were subjected to biometric analysis determining differentiation in root neck diameter, length of the above-ground part and root system, as well as dry mass of particular parts of the plant. The quality of the seedlings was also determined using the method of Schmidt-Vogt. The results obtained show that the change in dry bulk density soil significantly affected most of the growth parameters of the examined seedlings. Especially high negative correlations were obtained for the length and dry mass of the root system. A significant influence of dry bulk density variant on all growth parameters of Scots pine seedlings, and on some parameters of European beech was demonstrated. An increase in soil bulk density clearly caused also a deterioration of European beech seedlings quality
Mariusz Kormanek, Jacek Banach and Michał Ryba
The paper presents research on influence of nursery soil compaction, composed of peat (90%) and perlite (10%), on the growth of seedlings of Pinus sylvestris grown in containers. Polyethylene nursery are containers used for the seedling production. These containers were filled with three different densities of the peat and perlite substrate (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g·cm-3). During the experiment, nursery containers were initially placed in a plastic tent for a period of two months, and then for three months further months in an open nursery field. Growth measurements for individual plants were the length of shoots and the root system, root collar diameter, root and shoot dry weight and photosynthetic rate. There was a relationship between the extent of compaction of the soil substrate and all analyzed growth parameters of seedlings. A more compact substrate adversely affected on the number of grown seedlings and their length but positively influenced the dry mass of pine seedlings.
Jacek Banach, Kinga Skrzyszewska, Mateusz Smętek and Kamil Kubacki
This research was carried out on two experimental plots located in the Rymanów and Nawojowa forest districts. In the second and fifth year after planting, at three and six years of age respectively, survival and height of 25 beech progenies of selected seed stands were measured. Furthermore, we show the effect of beech origin and growth environment (significant ‘provenance × block’ and ‘provenance × test plot’ interactions). Beeches from both experimental plots differed significantly in growth and survival and this difference increased with tree age. The highest provenance heritability was obtained for the tree height after two years of growth in Rymanów. In Nawojowa, the heritability of beech survival reached zero after five years of growth. An evaluation of the stability of beech provenances (genotypes) in terms of survival and height under the habitat conditions of our experimental plots was done using the Finlay and Wilkinson method. The beech provenances of 469- Nawojowa and 452-Lesko (regional standard) were included as a stable basis for reference. A high degree of stability and high average values for the characteristics investigated indicate high progeny quality within these stands.
Robert Jankowiak, Jacek Banach and Angelika Balonek
Phytophthora cambivora (Straminipila, Oomycota) causes root rot and stem canker on several deciduous tree species in Europe. However, very little is known about the variation in susceptibility to P. cambivora colonisation among provenances and families of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). We studied variation in susceptibility of one French and 16 Polish provenances, representing 62 families. Samples were taken from three test plots located in the Brzesko Forest District. Oak susceptibility to P. cambivora was assessed by measuring lesion length following inoculation of excised shoots with two isolates of P. cambivora. There was significant variability in susceptibility among the 17 provenances tested. The highest susceptibility to P. cambivora was apparent in several provenances including Tronçais, Zaporowo, Runowo, Opole and Krotoszyn; while the most resistant provenances originated from Chojnów, Siedlce, Płock, Krotoszyn-90 and Wioska. There was also significant within-provenances variation in susceptibility to P. cambivora.
Jacek Banach, Kinga Skrzyszewska and Łukasz Świeboda
The effectiveness of different peat-based substrates was compared for the propagation of two mountain tree species (silver fir and European beech). The experiment was set up in the spring of 2006, and seedlings were grown in polystyrene multipots for 2 years. Four types of substrate were applied: (1) a newly prepared 1:1 peat-sawdust mixture; (2) a peat-sawdust mixture which had already been used for five production periods; (3) a peat substrate produced in the ‘Nędza’ container nursery (Rudy Raciborskie Forest District), consisting of peat and perlite; (4) a peat substrate, as described for (3), with added mycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme. After sowing, polystyrene multi-pots were placed in a transparent tent.
During the autumns of 2006 and 2007, for both species and each substrate type, 25 seedlings were randomly selected for measurement of their above-ground height, root length, root collar diameter, above- and below-ground fresh weight.
Growth of one-year old and two-year-old seedlings of both species differed depending on their substrate. The application of a mycorrhizal inoculum positively affected seedling establishment, since the best height growth and largest seedlings of both species were grown on substrate (4). The growth of one-year-old fir seedlings in the ‘old’ peat and sawdust mixture (2) was similar to those seedlings grown on the turf substrate (3). Root:shoot allocation differed among the substrates. In fir, root:shoot allocation was approximately equivalent at 1:0.9, whereas for beech it was 1:2 in one-year old seedlings and 1:1.5 in two-year old seedlings.
Grzegorz Durło, Krystyna Jagiełło-Leńczuk, Mariusz Kormanek, Stanisław Małek and Jacek Banach
For the period from the 1st of May to the 30th of October 2014, the water balance for Scots pine, Norway spruce, Pedunculate oak and European beech seedlings in a plantation setting was analysed. The experiment was conducted at the container nursery in the Rudy Raciborskie Forest District, Poland. Water was supplied by natural rainfall as well as a by small-droplet irrigation system and two automatic weather stations combined with 32 rain collectors were used to monitor rainfall throughout this research. Rain gauges were located 25 cm above the metal pallets and 10 cm below the nursery containers. An average of 987 mm∙m−2 of water reached the plantation, of which 53% were provided by the irrigation system. Most water was supplied to the oak field, whereas least was given to the spruce plantations and the irrigation water amounted to 535 liters and 422 liters per square meter, respectively. The amount of water percolating through the substrate was approximately 50–65%, depending on the tree species. An average sum of evapotranspiration at the container nursery was estimated to amount to 520 mm∙m−2 during the growth season leading to a total water balance of +463 mm.
Emilia Wilmowicz, Kamil Frankowski, Weronika Grzegorzewska, Jacek Kęsy, Agata Kućko, Mariusz Banach, Adriana Szmidt-Jaworska and Marian Saniewski
Mechanical damage to scales of Hippeastrum × hybr. bulbs leads to the formation of phytoalexin-like compounds which redden the wounded tissue. The reaction is accompanied by an increase in methyl jasmonate (JA-Me). Applying 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid, a jasmonate biosynthesis inhibitor, decreases the level of endogenous jasmonates and decreases the plant's ability to produce the red pigment. Experimental results indicate that jasmonates are involved in the defense response to wounding in Hippeastrum, which is manifested in the formation of red pigment, a compound of chalcones and flavans with phytoalexin-like properties.