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Open access

Anna Augustyniak, Maciej Słodki, Wojciech Krajewski, Jacek Moll and Maria Respondek-Liberska


Material and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 41 patients with congenital heart defect IAA from ICZMP in Lodz in the years 2003-2012, including 15 (36.6%) after prenatal diagnosis.

Results: An average of 4 newborns with IAA were operated annually, in the years 2003 -2009 postnatal diagnosis dominated, from 2010 prenatal diagnosis. In the group, n = 15 fetuses with IAA, heart size was normal: Avg 0.33 + / -0.05 HA / CA. Cardiovascular endurance in the CVPS : 8 - 10 points Avg. 9.56 + / -0.73. Infants in the "prenatal" group were often delivered by CS (64.3%), and infants diagnosed postnatally, often by spontaneous delivery (76.9%). In the prenatal group 100% of newborns received prostaglandin E1 from day one, and the "postnatal" group at an average of 6th day. In the "prenatal" group the dose of PGE: 0.02 ug / kg / min, in the "postnatal" group the average dose was> 2 x higher 0,042 mg / kg / min. A statistically significant relationship was shown: between the day of administering prostaglandin E1 and the number of postoperative recovery hospitalization days of the newborn with IAA.

Di George Syndrome occurred in 40% in the "prenatal" and in 15.4% in the "postnatal" group. Cardiac operations in the "prenatal" group were performed at average 19th day, and at average 21st day in the "postnatal" group. Infants in the "prenatal" group remained in the postoperative recovery room an average of 7.85 + / -3.98 days, and those from the “postnatal” group an average of 8.38 + / -3.94 days (p = 0.6212). There were 3 deaths (7.3%): 1 patient diagnosed prenatally and 2 postnatally. Neonates with IAA in the "prenatal" group remained in the hospital on average: 43.69 + / - 4.82 days and 39.54 + / -3.75 days in the "postnatal" group. After cardiac surgery, hospitalization in the "prenatal" group amounted to an average of 25.2 days in the "postnatal" 26.7 days.

Conclusions: 1. The prenatal diagnosis of IAA was grounds to start the administration of prostaglandin E1 on the first day of life, and in the "postnatal" group the administration of prostaglandin followed on average 6 days after birth, the "postnatal" dose was 2 x higher. 2. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between the day of prostaglandin E1 commencement and the number of hospitalization days of the newborn with IAA in the postoperative recovery room, the length of hospital stay in the ICU and sometimes full hospitalization.

Open access

Jacek Augustyniak, Marta Kuźma and Paweł Pędzich


Maps, depicting the warfare, are elaborated according to the rules developed over the years. Although, they are not free of errors. The authors draw our attention to the diversity of methods related to the cartographic presentations, which are shown on the historical maps. This is quite understandable, because every such a map introduces an individual point of view on the historical facts. It is noted, that the most commonly used methods are the qualitative ones, among which, for instance, first of all, the method of signature is frequently used.

In the case of historical maps displaying an event in the specific sequence of times, a loss of cartographic information always occur. This is connected both with the complexity of historical facts and with the difficulty in reading a map, which should present the dynamics of this phenomenon in a complete way. The dynamic variables, such as the time of exposure, duration, frequency, order, degree of change and synchronisation, should be taken into account on the maps of warfare.

The use of information technology makes it possible to develop not only the simple maps presenting the course of warfare in the statistic and schematic ways, but also the maps, which are rich in various types of multimedia information.

Multimedia cartographic presentations can be enriched with the photos and panoramas showing the direct effects of warfare and the pseudo three-dimensional visualization showing the battle from a selected direction. The proprietary software let to combine the sequence of photos into a presentation, allowing to take a virtual tour of the areas directly affected by the hostilities. Network services, such as WMS, WFS, WCS, provide the integrated data from the different sources for us. So, we can connect the archival maps with the contemporary satellite images, defining, thus, the location of a specific place in the terrain.

The authors do not cover the issue of complexity connected with the elaboration of maps presenting the combat operations. The most important problems, which have not been discussed in this article, are the following ones: lack of base maps from the period to which the presented issues related, deliberate distortion of map contents, historical and cartographic imprecisions presented on the maps, appropriate selection of the methods of cartographic presentation related to the phenomena, which are presented on the maps.