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Jacek Antonkiewicz

The effect of hard coal ashes on the amount and quality of maize yield

The research was conducted in 2003 - 2005 as a pot experiment on mineral soil to which ash doses of between 13.33 g and 800.0 g · pot-1 were supplied in proportions corresponding to the amounts of between 10 and 600 t · ha-1. The investigations aimed at learning the effect of diversified ash doses upon the content, ionic relations and the uptake of Mg, Ca, Na and P by maize. Macroelement concentrations in maize were diversified depending on the object and the plant part, fluctuating from 1.52 - 7.49 g Mg; 3.79 - 11.01 g Ca; 8.07 - 23.86 g K; 0.17 - 1.52 g Na; 1.23 - 3.16 g P · kg-1 d.m. It was found that with the growing ash dose the contents of Mg, Ca, K and Na in maize were increasing systematically, whereas P concentrations were decreasing. Magnesium and potassium content in maize aboveground parts met the requirements for a good quality fodder. The level of calcium, sodium and phosphorus in maize did not remain within the optimal range. A systematic increase in Mg uptake but a decline in P absorption by the aboveground parts were registered in maize in effect of growing ash doses.

Open access

Jacek Antonkiewicz and Robert Pełka

Abstract

The effect of addition of different materials, i.e. sludge, ash and peat, as well as different doses of mixtures of ash and sludge and ash peat, on the total content of heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni) and their fractions was studied. Application of municipal sewage sludge, ash-sludge and ash-peat mixtures in the experiment caused a gradual increase in the content of studied heavy metals in soil. The ash was characterized by a low content of heavy metals as compared to municipal sewage sludge. After application of peat and its mixtures with ash a decrease of content of heavy metals was observed, and when the peat was used alone the greatest increase in the organic C content in the substrate could be seen. Distribution of heavy metals in the fractions separated in different combinations shows large variations, depending on the tested metal and the studied variant. Chromium, zinc, lead, and cadmium have been accumulated mainly in the residual fraction (FV), and most of the copper and nickel have been specifically bound with organic matter (FIV). It has been found that the alkaline materials application to the soil decreased the solubility of most heavy metals, which results in a limitation of their uptake by plants. Chromium and copper were an exception, since their solubility increased with the alkalinity of the substrate. An exception was chromium and copper, which solubility increased with the alkalinity of the substrate.

Open access

Czesława Jasiewicz, Jacek Antonkiewicz and Agnieszka Baran

Assessment of the use of municipal and industrial wastes in agriculture

Agricultural usability of urban and industrial wastes was investigated in 2004 - 2006 in a pot experiment carried out in the vegetation hall. In the first year of the experiment maize was the test plant, oat grass in the second and oat in the third. The experimental design comprised 11 treatments differing with fertilizer and the kind of the supplied fertilizer components. The experiment used: mineral salts, farmyard manure, compost, municipal sewage sludge and industrial sewage sludge in two fertilizer doses. Metal concentrations in the test plants were diminishing in the following direction: oat grass < maize < oat. The lowest concentrations of the analyzed heavy metals were assessed in the plants fertilized with farmyard manure and compost (Zn, Cu). Among the tested plants the highest quantities of Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd were removed with the yield of the oat grass, then maize and oat. The highest uptake of Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb by plants was registered on a double dose of industrial sludge and Cd on a single dose of municipal sludge.

Open access

Wojciech Kępka, Jacek Antonkiewicz, Czesława Jasiewicz, Florian Gambuś and Robert Witkowicz

Abstract

Due to the fact that soils in Poland are mostly light soils, there is a need to improve their physical, chemical and biological properties. In addition, as a result of the decrease in the number of farm animals, a decrease in production of natural fertilizers can be observed. Low production of natural fertilizers speaks in favor of agricultural use of municipal sewage sludge in Poland. Municipal sewage sludge is composed of large quantities of macronutrients necessary for plants. This waste also contains significant amounts of organic substance. Chemical properties, including a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and often calcium, speak in favor of environmental use of municipal sewage sludge. Increasing requirements with respect to environmental protection cause the necessity to assess the effects of using organic waste for fertilization. In a farm located in the commune of Iwanowice (Małopolska province), municipal sewage sludge was applied under spring barley cultivation. The soil on which municipal sewage sludge was applied was classified into the category of heavy soils with neutral reaction. When assessing the content of available nutrients (P, K, Mg) in the soil, their low content was determined. After application of municipal sewage sludge in a dose of 24 Mg fresh matter per hectare, which corresponded to 5.34 Mg DM·ha−1, under spring barley, beneficial changes in chemical properties of the soil were observed. An increase in soil abundance in organic carbon and total nitrogen was observed, as well as an increase in the content of available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Based on the results of the conducted chemical analyses, it was established that biomass of spring barley fertilized with sewage sludge contained more macronutrients (N, P, K, Na, Ca and Mg), which improved its feed value. The field experiment showed that application of municipal sewage sludge increased uptake of macronutrients by spring barley.

Open access

Wojciech Kępka, Jacek Antonkiewicz, Florian Gambuś and Robert Witkowicz

Abstract

Municipal sewage sludge contains considerable amounts of macro and microelements essential for plant nutrition. With decreasing use of natural and organic fertilizers, there is a need to search for alternative sources of organic matter (which is a substrate for humus reproduction). In a field experiment carried out on heavy soil with neutral reaction, the effect of single application of municipal sewage sludge in a dose of 5.34 Mg·ha−1 DM was compared to an equivalent dose of mineral fertilizers. The test plant was spring barley. After application of municipal sewage sludge, slight positive changes in the chemical properties of the soil were observed. The sewage sludge increased the yield of spring barley grain and straw by, respectively, 14 and 13% in relation to treatment with mineral fertilization. Spring barley fertilized with sewage sludge contained more elements than barley grown only on mineral fertilizers. It was shown that application of municipal sewage sludge to the soil had a significant effect on increase in nutrient uptake by spring barley. Fe was taken up in the highest amount, followed by Al and Mn, and Co was taken up in the smallest amounts. Utilization of Fe, Mn, Co and Al from sewage sludge by spring barley was at 6.0, 4.7, 0.7 and 0.7%, respectively of the amount applied to the soil with this waste. The mass ratios (Fe:Mn, Fe:Al, Mn:Co) analyzed in spring barley biomass were much wider in straw than in grain. In terms of grain feed value, Fe:Mn ratio in grain and straw was greater than optimum.

Open access

Jacek Antonkiewicz and Jan Łabętowicz

Abstract

This monograph aims to present how arduously views on plant nutrition shaped over centuries and how the foundation of environmental knowledge concerning these issues was created. This publication also presents current problems and trends in studies concerning plant nutrition, showing their new dimension. This new dimension is determined, on one hand, by the need to feed the world population increasing in geometric progression, and on the other hand by growing environmental problems connected with intensification of agricultural production.

Open access

Jacek Antonkiewicz, Czesława Jasiewicz, Małgorzata Koncewicz-Baran and Renata Bączek-Kwinta

Abstract

Irrigation of cultivated plants can be a source of toxic lithium to plants. The data on the effect of lithium uptake on plants are scant, that is why a research was undertaken with the aim to determine maize ability to bioaccumulate lithium. The research was carried out under hydroponic conditions. The experimental design comprised 10 concentrations in solution differing with lithium concentrations in the aqueous solution (ranging from 0.0 to 256.0 mg Li ∙ dm-3 of the nutrient solution). The parameters based on which lithium bioretention by maize was determined were: the yield, lithium concentration in various plant parts, uptake and utilization of this element, tolerance index (TI) and translocation factor (TF), metal concentrations in the above-ground parts index (CI) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). Depression in yielding of maize occurred only at the highest concentrations of lithium. Lithium concentration was the highest in the roots, lower in the stems and leaves, and the lowest in the inflorescences. The values of tolerance index and EC50 indicated that roots were the most resistant organs to lithium toxicity. The values of translocation factor were indicative of intensive export of lithium from the roots mostly to the stems. The higher uptake of lithium by the above-ground parts than by the roots, which primarily results from the higher yield of these parts of the plants, supports the idea of using maize for lithium phytoremediation.