Vitalii Ukhovskyi, Boris Borisevich, Vlada Kulykova, Jacek Żmudzki and Artur Jabłoński
The article presents data on histopathological studies of the kidneys of cows, which either recovered or died from leptospirosis. Fragments of seven kidneys from slaughtered cows, positive for Leptospira antibodies in the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) (titres of 50 and higher) were used in the study. The MAT was conducted with eight serological groups of Leptospira: Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Sejroe, Tarassovi, and Australis. Microscopic changes in all morphological structures of the kidneys were presented. Micromorphological criteria, which can be used for post-mortem diagnosis of leptospirosis were established. They included: serous glomerulonephritis with granular dystrophy of podocytes, necrosis and collapse of the inner layer of Bowman's capsule, partial destruction of capsule and vascular glomeruli, granular and vacuolar degeneration and destruction of tubular epithelial cells, foci of interstitial oedema, and infiltrations predominantly with monocytes and isolated neutrophils. Microscopic changes in the kidneys suggest that the cows died from leptospirosis as a result of toxic shock syndrome.
Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk, Jacek Żmudzki and Grzegorz Woźniakowski
Since 2007, African swine fever (ASF) has posed a serious threat to the European swine industry. In Poland, the numbers of reported outbreaks in pigs and affected areas grow every year. In 2018, the disease was noted in Western Europe, in Belgium specifically, where several hundred infected wild boars have been detected so far. In 2018, the virus unexpectedly emerged in pig holdings in eastern China, northern Mongolia, Vietnam, and Cambodia, causing worldwide concern about its further spread. Since there is still no vaccine available, the only approach to control the disease is biosecurity. Identification of potential sources of the virus is extremely important in light of its phenomenal survivability. The review summarises the current knowledge about ASFV survivability and resistance to environmental conditions, and discusses the role of indirect contact in spreading the disease.
Jacek Żmudzki, Artur Jabłoński, Zbigniew Arent, Sylwia Zębek, Agnieszka Nowak, Agnieszka Stolarek and Marta Parzeniecka-Jaworska
Introduction: Recently in Europe an increase in the population of red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and fallow deer (Dama dama) has been observed. Research on the prevalence of Leptospira infections in Polish cervids has been performed for the first time.
Material and Methods: During 2014/2015 hunting season, 147 blood samples from red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer were collected. The animals originated from different geographical regions across Poland. Serum samples were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of specific antibodies to the following Leptospira serovars: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Sejroe, Tarassovi, Pomona, Canicola, Bratislava, Hardjo, Ballum, Zanoni, Hebdomadis, and Poi.
Results: Serum antibody titres specific to Grippotyphosa, Pomona, and Zanoni serovars were found; none of the sera were positive for any of the other serovars. Out of 147 serum samples only 7 were positive, which gave an overall prevalence of 4.8% in the tested animal population.
Conclusion: The low Leptospira antibody titres along with the low number of positive serum samples in deer indicate that these animals may not act as significant reservoirs of Leptospira for either humans or animals in Poland.
Artur Jabłoński, Dominika Borowska, Sylwia Zębek, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Arkadiusz Dors, Jacek Żmudzki, Agnieszka Nowak and Zygmunt Pejsak
The aim of the study was to develop and validate a real-time PCR method, using a TaqMan probe, for quantification of Mycoplasma suis in porcine blood. No PCR signals with closely related non-haemotrophic mycoplasmas were obtained. The detection limit of PCR for plasmid combined with blood DNA was determined to be 103/reaction (5 μL of DNA) (1.2x105 target copies in 1 mL of blood). The linearity of real-time PCR (near 1) indicates its use as a quantitative method. Real-time and quantitative PCR were sensitive and specific for the detection and quantification of M. suis in the blood of animals with acute and chronic form of eperythrozoonosis. Developed quantitative PCR cannot be used to detect carrier animals with a small amount of M. suis in their blood. The validity of real-time PCR used in the studies was confirmed by the low inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation. This fact confirms the applicability of the assay in other laboratories.
Krzysztof Wąsowicz, Piotr Podlasz, Małgorzata Chmielewska, Katarzyna Łosiewicz, Jerzy Kaleczyc, Jacek Żmudzki, Michał Załęcki, Zenon Pidsudko and Mirosław Łakomy
The expression of galanin (GAL) and its three receptors (GalR1, GalR2, and GalR3) were studied with real-time PCR in the colonic wall of pigs suffering from experimental colitis caused by the infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. The expression was studied in the muscular membrane, mucosa/submucosa layer, and in lymphocytes isolated from mucosa/submucosa. The expression levels were normalized to glyceraldehyde-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression and compared to expression levels in control animals. GAL expression was found in all three studied compartments of the colonic wall. A significant decrease in GAL expression level was found in the mucosa/submucosa and in isolated lymphocytes, whereas the decrease was much less profound in the muscular membrane. In the case of galanin receptors their expression was found in all studied compartments of the colonic wall, however at different levels, as compared to GAPDH expression. The decrease of galanin receptors expression was found in all studied compartments of the colonic wall of the sick animals.