For games of complete information with no chance component, like Chess, Go, Hex, and Konane, some parameters have been identified that help us understand what makes a game pleasant to play. One of these goes by the name of drama.
Briefly, drama is linked to the possibility of recovering from a seemingly weaker position, if the player is strong enough. This is an important requirement to prevent initial advantages to be amplified into unavoidable and thus uninteresting victories. Drama is a feature that arguably good board games should have, since it is relevant in the perception of the play experience as pleasant.
Despite its intrinsic qualitative nature, we suggest the adaptation of the concept of drama to games of pure chance and propose a set of objective criteria to measure it. Some parameters are here used to compare Goose-like games, which we compute via computer simulation for some well-know games. A statistical analysis is performed based on the play of millions of matches done by computer simulation. The article discusses correlations and patterns found among the collected data. The methodology presented herein is general and can be used to compare other types of board games.
This paper is to develop a measurement scale for perceived construction project success to be used for management studies in construction project context. First, a systematic literature review was conducted. A questionnaire was administrated to a sample of 108 construction projects and 47 (44%) questionnaires were received. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out and required steps were followed in the process to establish validity and reliability of the measurement scale. Initially nine criteria with 25 items which can be used for evaluating and driving construction projects were found. Results of factor analysis reveal seventeen measurable items which were loaded on three dimensions/factors. Practitioners can use these criteria as a guiding framework for monitoring and driving their construction projects. This scale will be instrumental for those who are aspired to do research in construction project context. This study may be the first to discuss a measurement scale for construction project success with the viewpoints of Sri Lankan construction professionals. Also this scale has attempted to go beyond the traditional criteria and emphasize the requirement of having a long term perspective. This study add to the body of knowledge of project success criteria and construction project management.
The HJ-BIPLOT method developed by Galindo (1986) was applied in order to identify and categorize mothers vulnerable to environmental contamination in the Algarve region (South Portugal). The application of the BIPLOT method made it possible to recognize the most important exposure routes for contamination, showing that workplace, diet and smoking habits seem the most significant factors contributing to maternal and foetal exposure vulnerability
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic and endemic disease in several parts of the world. Its mortality rate reaches alarming proportions, which makes emergency the control of this disease. In Brazil, only the species Schistosoma mansoni was adapted to the climatic conditions and to the presence of appropriate hosts. This species shows a life cycle involving mollusks Biomphalaria spp. and humans. However, it has been shown that wild rodents with semi-aquatic habits are capable to establish a productive infection of this parasite. In addition, they are likely also to be capable to spread the disease in endemic areas. Due to the selective pressure exerted by the successive infections in these animals, we may be watching the development of a new strain of the parasite, which is not yet fully defined and understood. With the intention of directing new studies to this problem, we tried to establish main lines of research to demonstrate the real importance of these wild rodents in the epidemiology of schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil.
The antibacterial activity of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) essential oil (LEO) and limonene was tested against seven Gram-negative and nine Gram-positive fish pathogenic bacteria isolated from cultured olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck & Schlegel) in Korea. Limonene was >99% concentrated and LEO consisted of eleven chemical compounds including 56.22% of limonene. Disk diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests were done. LEO and limonene inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. LEO and limonene (MBC/MIC= 2-8) were both bactericidal and bacteriostatic for the strains tested. In every fish pathogenic bacteria, the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) increased in proportion to the oil concentration and the maximum effect was found at 100% (V/V) concentrations of LEO and limonene. The antibiogram pattern indicated that all the bacterial strains, excluding three strains of S. iniae (S186, S530, and S131), showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. The percentage of the relative inhibition zone diameter (RIZD %) exhibited high values at higher concentrations of all the agents. Since antibacterial activities of LEO and limonene were considerably effective against fish pathogenic bacteria, they could be used as alternatives to treat bacterial infections in aquaculture.