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T. C. Tso, J. L. Sims and D. E. Tohnson

Abstract

ExperimentaI cigarettes from tobaccos varying in genotype, nitrogen nutrition, stalk position, suckering practice, and curing methods were used to examine the Ievels of N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in smoke. Measurable amounts of DMN were found in all experimental samples, ranging from 1.7 to 115 ng per gram of tobacco burned. DMN content in smoke generally increased as rate of N fertilization increased. However, there were wide seasonal, cultural, and varietal effects. Burley-type tobacco produced a much higher level of DMN than the bright-type tobacco. DMN content in smoke was significantly and positively related to Ieaf total N, totaI alkaloids, nicotine, nornicotine, total volatile bases and nitrate N, but negatively related to reducing sugars. Reconstituted sheet tobaccos made with homogenized-leaf-curing samples produced much lower amounts of DMN than conventionally cured leaf. Additional information is needed to elucidate the primary leaf constituents that serve as precursors of DMN.

Open access

S.H. Choi, B. Ali, S.K. Hyun, J.J. Sim, W.J. Choi, W. Joo, J.H. Lim, Y.J. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

Combustion synthesis is capable of producing many types of refractory and ceramic materials, as well as metals, with a relatively lower cost and shorter time frame than other solid state synthetic techniques. TiO2 with Mg as reductant were dry mixed and hand compacted into a 60 mm diameter mold and then combusted under an Ar atmosphere. Depending on the reaction parameters (Mg concentration 2 ≤ α ≤ 4), the thermocouples registered temperatures between 1160°C and 1710°C · 3 mol of Mg gave the optimum results with combustion temperature (Tc) and combustion velocity (Uc) values of 1372°C and 0.26 cm/s respectively. Furthermore, this ratio also had the lowest oxygen concentration in this study (0.8 wt%). After combustion, DC plasma treatment was carried out to spheroidize the Ti powder for use in 3D printing. The characterization of the final product was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and N/O analysis.

Open access

S.J. Singh and S.P. Harsha

Abstract

The present study is based on the nonlinear bending analysis of an FGM plate with Von-Karman strain based on the non-linear classical plate theory (NLCPT) with in-plane displacement and moderate rotation. Non-linear bending analysis based on stresses and transverse deflections is then carried out for the plate for the complex solution obtained using an analytical method viz. Navier’s method. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained using the Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (PMPE) method and material property is graded in thickness direction according to simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. The effect of the span-to-thickness ratio and FGM exponent on the maximum central deflection and stresses are studied. The results show that the response is transitional with respect to ceramic and metal and the complex solution predicts the real behavior of stresses and deflections in the functionally graded plate. The functionally graded plate is found to be more effective for moderately thick and thick plates, which is inferred by a complex nature of the solution. For FGM plates, the transverse deflection is in-between to that of metal and ceramic rich plates. The complex nature of the solution also gives information about the stress distribution in the thickness direction.

Open access

S.H. Choi, B. Ali, K.S. Choi, S.K. Hyun, J.J. Sim, W.J. Choi, W. Joo, J.H. Lim, T.H. Lee, T.S. Kim and K.T. Park

Abstract

Although TiNb2O7 is regarded as a material with high application potential in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), it has been difficult to find suitable cost-effective conditions for synthesizing it on a commercial scale. In this study, TiNb2O7 compounds were synthesized by a solid state synthesis process. For stoichiometrically precise synthesis of the TiNb2O7 phase, the starting materials, TiO2 and Nb2O5 were taken in a 1:1 molar ratio. Activation energy and reaction kinetics of the system were investigated at various synthesis temperatures (800,1000,1200, and 1400°C) and for various holding durations (1,5,10, and 20 h). Furthermore, change in the product morphology and particle size distribution were also evaluated as a function of synthesis temperature and duration. Additionally, quantitative phase analysis was conducted using the Rietveld refinement method. It was found that increases in the synthesis temperature and holding time lead to increase in the mean particle size from 1 to 4.5 μm. The reaction rate constant for the synthesis reaction was also calculated.