Indirect contamination of tobacco by DDT, TDE, endrin, dieldrin, and toxaphene was investigated under field conditions. Levels of DDT + TDE in soil ranged from << 0.01 to 0.18 ppm, and those in cured leaves ranged from 0.11 to 1.69 ppm. The lower stalk position at the major test location generally had greater concentrations of DDT + TDE than the middle and upper positions, but distribution of these insecticides among leaf positions was variable for other locations. Residues of DDT in the bottom stalk position were positively correlated with those in the soil. Plant-bed soils did not appear to be a major source of DDT + TDE residues in cured tobacco. Residues of endrin and dieldrin were near or below the limit of detection (0.01 ppm) in soil and cured leaf. Residues of toxaphene ranged from << 0.1 to 4.7 ppm in soil and << 0.3 to 7.7 ppm on tobacco. Toxaphene residues in the bottom and top stalk positions were positively correlated with residues in soil. Contamination by toxaphene appeared to be attributable to uptake from soil and to movement of the insecticide as drift or vapour through the air.
This paper describes the methods used in smoking p,p'-DDT-treated tobacco, collecting the smoke condensate, chromatographing the condensate on activated Florisil and deactivated alumina columns, and finally identifying the non-volatile p,p'-DDT pyrolysis products in the tobacco smoke condensate. The pyrolysis products identified were: p,p'-DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'-TDE, p,p'-DDM, trans-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, bis-(p-chlorophenyI)methane, and p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone.
Average residue Ievels of DDT + TDE in flue-cured tobacco decreased from 6.1 ppm in 1970 to 0.85 ppm in 1972. DDT + TDE residues in Burley also dropped sharply from previous levels. In 1972 one sample from Kentucky contained 8.17 ppm; all other Burley samples were less than 0.25 ppm. DDT + TDE residues also declined in fire-cured and air-cured types; of these samples Tennessee dark air-cured tobacco contained the highest average residue (3.5 ppm of DDT + TDE). In 1972 over 90 % of the flue-cured samples were positive for toxaphene. Since each of our samples was a composite of tobacco from 10 farmers, we cannot conclude from this result that 90 % of the individual piles contained toxaphene. Significant amounts of toxaphene were found in other types also; for example, 50 % of the 1972 Burley samples had toxaphene concentrations greater than 0.5 ppm. Average endosulfan levels decreased between 1970 and 1972 in flue-cured and Burley tobaccos. However, in all of the dark air and dark fire-cured samples from Tennessee endosulfan residues exceeded 5 ppm. Average endrin residues were at or near the low detection limit in alI samples except fire-cured and dark air-cured tobacco from Tennessee; these averaged 0.26 and 0.17 ppm, respectively.
The article addresses risk management in nonprofit organizations. This topical issue appears not to have been adequately studied by researchers to date. There are several questions the author of this paper attempts to answer: What are the risk categories faced by nonprofit organizations in their daily operations? Do Polish nonprofit organizations take any measures in the area of strategic risk management? A contribution is made to the theory of management of nonprofit organizations by making an overview of existing literature on the subject, identifying a research gap, proposing concepts that attempt to fill the gap, and recommending areas for future study. A comprehensive list of risks faced by nonprofit organizations in their daily operations has been developed and validated for further application. The empirical material comes from a study based on a national random sample of 235 nonprofit organizations.
These studies, on the pyrolysis of DDT, can be divided into two sections. Section 1 deals with the pyrolysis of p,p'-DDT in a nitrogen atmosphere at 900°C and subsequent isolation and identification of CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, CHCl = CCl2, CCl2 = CCl2, chlorobenzene, CCl3- CCl3, a,p-dichlorotoluene, p,p'-dichlorobiphenyl, bis-(p-chlorophenyl)methane, cis-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, bis-(p-chlorophenyI)chloromethane, p,p'-DDM, p,p'-DDE, trans-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, p,p'-TDE, and p,p'-DDT. Mechanisms for the formation of these compounds are proposed, and on that basis prediction is made on the formation of DDT degradation products when DDT-treated tobacco is smoked. Section 2 deals with pyrolytic degradation of DDT incorporated in tobacco. Methyl chloride, bis-(p-chlorophenyl)methane, p,p'-dichlorobenzophenone, p,p'-DDM, trans-p,p'-dichlorostilbene, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-TDE and p,p'-DDT were identified as the pyrolysis products. Based on the type and nature of pyrolysis products obtained, eight conclusions are made.
Jarosław Domański, Wiesław Kotarba and Tadeusz Krupa
This article makes a contribution to the ongoing paradigmatic debate concerning management science, aiming to define more precisely its constructs. At present, within this field there is a lack of definition, of a universally accepted way of seeing reality, which results in a clear deficit in pedagogical identity. Our proposal for a new paradigm is based on three descriptors or constructs (prisms): organization, knowledge, and safety (OKS); in this model, the leading role is played by human.
The “organization” prism, in the classic sense, concerns the organization with an emphasis on the implementation of the personalistic vision of human. The “knowledge” prism includes the technical, social, and economic aspects of the collection, processing, and use of knowledge. The “security” prism is an aspect related to the identification and prevention of crises and threats to the functioning of the OKS triad as a whole.