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J.H. Kim and J.-H. Lee

Abstract

In order to fabricate graphite nanosheets from graphite flakes, edge-functionalized graphite nanosheets were prepared by a functionalization method using phthalic acid as the molecule to be grafted. A polyphosphoric acid/P2O5 solution containing graphite and phthalic acid were heated at different temperatures for 72 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. It was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy that the resultant phthalic acid-functionalized graphite nanosheets had a large surface area of 20.69 μm2 in average and an average thickness of 1.39 nm. It was also found by X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis that the functionalization caused the formation of C=O bonds at the edges of the graphite nanosheets. The yield from this functionalization method was found to be dependent on the reaction temperature, only when it is between 70 and 130°C, because of the dehydration of phthalic acid at higher temperatures. This was confirmed by FT-IR analysis and the observation of low thermal energies at low temperatures.

Open access

J.H. Lee and J.U. Cho

Abstract

This paper studies the characteristics of junction structure of closed-cell type aluminum foam, which is generally used as a shock absorber. TDCB specimens were designed for mode III type with thickness as a variable and performed a fatigue experiment on them by thickness. As the result, the load value of all specimens peaks under 0 to 25 cycles and decreases as the cycles increase. As the specimen thickens by 10 mm, the maximum load value is 1.2 times. When the thickness increases by 20 mm, the maximum value increases by 1.5 times. This study result can be utilized by investigating the mechanical characteristics of TDCB specimens for mode III type under fatigue loading conditions systematically and efficiently.

Open access

J.-H. Pee, G.H. Kim, H.Y. Lee and Y.J. Kim

Abstract

Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4) was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT) also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types) of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.

Open access

J.-H. Pee, G.H. Kim, H.Y. Lee and Y.J. Kim

Abstract

Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process). Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction). To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide) powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

Open access

Y.M. Shin and J.-H. Lee

Abstract

This study presents a simple wet-chemical process to prepare several micron-size Cu powders. Moreover, changes in powder synthesis yield and particle size are examined with different solvents, synthesis temperatures, and amounts of reducing agent during the synthesis. As a reducing agent and capping agent, L-ascorbic acid and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were used, respectively. The yields in distilled water or an ethylene glycol (EG)/distilled water mixture were higher than that in EG alone, and the yield increased with increasing temperature owing to a lower Δ Gred value. Increasing the L-ascorbic acid concentration also increased the yield. The Cu powder synthesized in 3 h at 90°C in distilled water with 272.8 mM of L-ascorbic acid showed the lowest average particle size of 2.52 μm, indicating mechanisms of short burst nucleation and reduced growth via the increased reduction rate of Cu ions. It is estimated that the nucleation step was nearly completed within 10 min in this system. The Cu powders synthesized in an ethylene glycol/distilled water mixture presented an average particle size of 3.76 μm and the highest yield of 87.9%.

Open access

G.-G. Lee, H.-H. Jin, K. Chang, B.H. Lee and J. Kwon

Abstract

Stainless steel (SS) is a well-known material for the internal parts of nuclear power plants. It is known that these alloys exhibit radiation-induced segregation (RIS) at point defect sinks at moderate temperature, while in service. The RIS behavior of SS can be a potential problem by increasing the susceptibility to irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking. In this work, the RIS behavior of solute atoms at sinks in SS 316 irradiated with Fe4+ ions were characterized by atom probe tomography (APT). There were torus-shaped defects along with a depletion of Cr and enrichment of Ni and Si. These clusters are believed to be dislocation loops resulting from irradiation. The segregation of solutes was also observed for various defect shapes. These observations are consistent with other APT results from the literature. The composition of the clusters was analyzed quantitatively almost at the atomic scale. Despite the limitations of the experiments, the APT analysis was well suited for discovering the structure of irradiation defects and performing a quantitative analysis of RIS in irradiated specimens.

Open access

Y.-K. Kim, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Gwon and K.-A. Lee

Abstract

This study attempted to manufacture an ODS alloy by combining multiple milling processes in mechanical alloying stage to achieve high strength and fracture elongation. The complex milling process of this study conducted planetary ball milling, cryogenic ball milling and drum ball milling in sequential order, and then the microstructure and tensile deformation behavior were investigated after additional heat treatment. The oxide particles distributed within the microstructure were fine oxide particles of 5~20 nm and coarse oxide particles of 100~200 nm, and the oxide particles were confirmed to be composed of Cr, Ti, Y and O. Results of tensile tests at room temperature measured yield strength, tensile strength and elongation as 1320 MPa, 2245 MPa and 4.2%, respectively, before heat treatment, and 1161 MPa, 2020 MPa and 5.5% after heat treatment. This results indicate that the ODS alloy of this study gained very high strengths compared to other known ODS alloys, allowing greater plastic zones.

Open access

J.-H. Lee, D.-O. Kim and K. Lee

Abstract

The hot deformation behavior of a heavy micro-alloyed high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel plate was studied by performing compression tests at elevated temperatures. The hot compression tests were carried out at temperatures from 923 K to 1,223 K with strain rates of 0.002 s−1 and 1.0 s−1. A long plateau region appeared for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate, and this was found to be an effect of the balancing between softening and hardening during deformation. For the 1.0 s−1 strain rate, the flow stress gradually increased after the yield point. The temperature and the strain rate-dependent parameters, such as the strain hardening coefficient (n), strength constant (K), and activation energy (Q), obtained from the flow stress curves were applied to the power law of plastic deformation. The constitutive model for flow stress can be expressed as σ = (39.8 ln (Z) – 716.6) · ε (−0.00955ln(Z) + 0.4930) for the 1.0 s−1 strain rate and σ = (19.9ln (Z) – 592.3) · ε (−0.00212ln(Z) + 0.1540) for the 0.002 s−1 strain rate.

Open access

M.-W. Lee, K.-H. Bae, S.-R. Lee, H.-J. Kim and T.-S. Jang

Abstract

We investigated the microstructural and magnetic property changes of DyCo, Cu + DyCo, and Al + DyCo diffusion-treated NdFeB sintered magnets. The coercivity of all diffusion treated magnet was increased at 880ºC of 1st post annealing(PA), by 6.1 kOe in Cu and 7.0 kOe in Al mixed DyCo coated magnets, whereas this increment was found to be relatively low (3.9 kOe) in the magnet coated with DyCo only. The diffusivity and diffusion depth of Dy were increased in those magnets which were treated with Cu or Al mixed DyCo, mainly due to comparatively easy diffusion path provided by Cu and Al because of their solubility with Ndrich grain boundary phase. The formation of Cu/Al-rich grain boundary phase might have enhanced the diffusivity of Dy-atoms. Moreover, relatively a large number of Dy atoms reached into the magnet and mostly segregated at the interface of Nd2Fe14B and grain boundary phases covering Nd2Fe14B grains so that the core-shell type structures were developed. The formation of highly anisotropic (Nd, Dy)2Fe14B phase layer, which acted as the shell in the core-shell type structure so as to prevent the reverse domain movement, was the cause of enhancing the coercivity of diffusion treated NdFeB magnets. Segregation of cobalt in Nd-rich TJP followed by the formation of Co-rich phase was beneficial for the coercivity enhancement, resulting in the stabilization of the metastable c-Nd2O3 phase.

Open access

H.Y. Ryu, S.C. Kwon, M.H. Han, Y.S. An, J.S. Lee and J.H. Lee

Abstract

The effects of processing parameters on the morphology change in a Si deposit recovered by means of molten salt electrorefining are evaluated using electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry at 800°C. It was found that concentration of K2SiF6 and current density were important parameters in determining deposit size. Higher concentrations of K2SiF6 were effective in coarsening the silicon deposit and decreasing the cell potential. Silicon nanofiber was recovered at 5 wt% of K2SiF6 whereas dense particles were prepared at 30 and 50 wt% of K2SiF6. The morphology of the Si deposit was determined by the concentration of Si in the electrolyte which is related to the formation of crystal and growth of Si. The formation mechanism of the Si deposit was interpreted by using high resolution TEM as well as electrochemical properties.