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J. Zych and J. Wróbel

Abstract

The investigation results of the thermal fatigue resistance of two ADI grades (EN-GJS-1200-2 and EN-GJS-800-8) are presented in the paper. Tests were performed on the author’s research stand, by means of the resistance heating of samples acc. L.F. Coffin method. The thermal fatigue resistance is the basic criterion in assessing the material suitability for metal moulds. The maximal temperature (Tmax) of thermal cycles influence on their number, which the sample can withstand before cracking, were estimated. Structure transformations, hardness and strength changes of the austempered ductile iron (ADI) were analysed. It was found, that at cyclic heating to Tmax <500°C, the ADI retains its primary ausferritic structure, even after more than 10.000 thermal cycles. Such ADI behaviour predisposes it to be applied as a material for metal moulds used in the pressure die casting, it means mainly at casting Mg and Zn alloys as well as for small castings of Al alloys.

Open access

T. Wróbel and J. Szajnar

Abstract

The paper presents modification of primary structure of Al 99,5% and 99,8% purity and AlSi2 alloy by electromagnetic stirring of liquid metal within foundry mould. The movement of solidifying liquid metal within the mould was forced by horizontal electromagnetic field produced by the induction coil (stirrer), supplied by current of elevated frequency. The structure refinement obtained by electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by traditional modification, i.e. by introducing Ti, B, C and Sr modifying additives into melt. The results of studies show possibility of effective primary structure refinement of pure Al and selected Al-Si alloy by using only horizontal electromagnetic field, without necessity of Ti, B and C additives application.

Open access

T. Wróbel and J. Szajnar

Abstract

The paper presents the problem of obtaining a permanent diffusional joint between the working surface layer and the base part in a bimetallic casting. The studied bimetallic casting was obtained as a result of using the founding method of layer coating directly in the cast process. The casting prepared using this method consists of two fundamental parts, i.e., the grey cast iron base and the working surface layer which constitutes of X6Cr 13 high-chromium stainless steels plate. Based on the obtained results it was confirmed that the decisive phenomena that are needed to create a permanent joint between the two components of the bimetallic casting are carbon and heat transport from the high-carbon and hot base material which was poured into the mould in the form of liquid metal to the low-carbon and cold material of the working layer which was placed in the mould cavity in the form of a monolithic insert.

Open access

M. Kotas, J.M. Leski and J. Wrobel

Abstract

We propose to tackle the problem of maternal abdominal electric signals decomposition with a combined application of independent component analysis and projective or adaptive filtering. The developed method is employed to process the four-channel abdominal signals recorded during twin pregnancy. These signals are complicated mixtures of the maternal ECG, the ECGs of the fetal twins and noise of various origin. Although the independent component analysis cannot separate the respective signals, the proposed combination of the methods deals with this task successfully. A simulation experiment confirms high efficiency of this approach.

Open access

J. Szajnar, A. Dulska, T. Wróbel and J. Suchoń

Abstract

In paper a method of improvement in utility properties of unalloyed cast steel casting in result of diffusion of C and Cr in process of creation of surface layer is presented. The aim of paper was determination of diffusion range of basic elements of alloyed surface layer. Moreover a quantitative analysis of carbides phase strengthens alloyed surface layer of casting was carried out. The results of studies shown that important factors of surface layer creation are maximal temperature Tmax on granular insert – cast steel boundary dependent of pouring temperature, granularity Zw of Fe-Cr-C alloy insert and thickness of casting wall gśo. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that with increase of thickness of casting wall increases range of diffusion in solid state in Fe-Cr-C grains and in liquid state. Moreover the range of Tmax = 13001500oC favours creation of the proper alloyed surface layers on cast steel.

Open access

Jadwiga Knop and Małgorzata Wróbel

Abstract

A theorem characterizing -connected spaces, which are completely Hausdorff, separable, locally and arcwise connected, is presented.

Open access

Michal Zgrzebnicki, Ewa Michalczyszyn and Rafal J. Wrobel

Abstract

Secondary activation of commercial activated carbon (AC) ORGANOSORB 10-CO was carried out at 600, 700 and 800oC with mass ratios of potassium to AC (K/AC) in range 1-3. Crucial samples have shown following CO2 uptakes and SSA - 3.90 mmol/g and 1225 m2/g, 4.54 mmol/g and 1546 m2/g, 4.28 and 1717 m2/g for pristine material and samples obtained at 700oC with K/AC = 2 and at 800oC with K/AC = 3 respectively. Last sample also indicated signifi cant mesopore volume increase in diameter range 2-5 nm, from 0.11 to 0.24 cm3/g. CO2 uptake increase was explained by formation of micropores up to diameter of 0.8 nm, which distribution was established from CO2 sorption using DFT. Surface chemistry of all samples has not changed during modifi cation, what was proven by XPS. Moreover, deeper incorporation of potassium ions into graphite at higher temperatures was observed as confi rmed with EDS, XPS and XRD.

Open access

T. Wróbel, J. Szajnar, D. Bartocha and M. Stawarz

Abstract

In paper is presented idea of construction and influence of selected parts of stand of horizontal continuous casting on quality of pure Al and AlSi2 alloy ingots. The main parts of the made stand belong to induction furnace, which is also tundish, water cooled continuous casting mould, system of recooling, system of continuous ingot drawing and cutting. Mainly was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure. Effect of structure refinement obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. The results of studies show possibility of effective refinement of Al and AlSi2 alloy primary structure, only with use of horizontal electromagnetic field and without necessity of application of inoculants. This method of inoculation is important, because inoculants decrease the degree of purity and electrical conductivity of pure aluminum and moreover are reason of point cracks formation during rolling of ingots.

Open access

J. Wróbel, A. Kulawik and A. Bokota

Abstract

In the paper the use of the artificial neural network to the control of the work of heat treating equipment for the long axisymmetric steel elements with variable diameters is presented. It is assumed that the velocity of the heat source is modified in the process and is in real time updated according to the current diameter. The measurement of the diameter is performed at a constant distance from the heat source (Δz = 0). The main task of the model is control the assumed values of temperature at constant parameters of the heat source such as radius and power. Therefore the parameter of the process controlled by the artificial neural network is the velocity of the heat source. The input data of the network are the values of temperature and the radius of the heated element. The learning, testing and validation sets were determined by using the equation of steady heat transfer process with a convective term. To verify the possibilities of the presented algorithm, based on the solve of the unsteady heat conduction with finite element method, a numerical simulation is performed. The calculations confirm the effectiveness of use of the presented solution, in order to obtain for example the constant depth of the heat affected zone for the geometrically variable hardened axisymmetric objects

Open access

T. Wróbel, J. Szajnar, D. Bartocha and M. Stawarz

Abstract

In paper is presented results of studies concerning ingot of Al with a purity of 99.5% cast with use of stand of horizontal continuous casting. Mainly together with casting velocity was considered influence of electromagnetic stirrer, which was placed in continuous casting mould on refinement of ingots structure and theirs usability to plastic deformation. Effect of structure refinement and usability to plastic deformation obtained by influence of electromagnetic stirring was compared with refinement obtained by use of traditional inoculation, which consists in introducing of additives i.e. Ti and B to metal bath. On the basis of obtained results was affirmed that inoculation realized by electromagnetic stirring in range of continuous casting mould guarantees improvement in structure refinement and usability to rolling of pure Al continuous ingots.