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J. Marcisz and J. Stępień

Abstract

The age hardening behaviour of MS350 maraging steel both in undeformed specimens and in specimens deformed immediately after ageing was studied. Experiments of short-time (15, 30 and 60 s) ageing at temperature up to 600°C were performed. It was found that after ageing at 480-500°C for 15-60 s without deformation the hardness reached the 450-525 HV. The time of ageing at 600°C to reach hardness 600 HV was 15 seconds. No precipitation in specimen aged at 500°C for 60 s was found in TEM and HRTEM investigations. Deformation immediately after ageing intensifies the process of hardening caused by temporary increase of temperature and increase of dislocation density. The hardness of specimens aged for 30 s and then deformed at 480-550°C was similar to the hardness at peak aged conditions (480°C/4h) and reached 600-630 HV. Material produced in industrial trials of cold forward flow forming and following laboratory ageing was analyzed. Increase of hardness from 370 HV to 590-630 HV for specimens taken from thin walled flow formed tube as a result of ageing at 460-490°C for 30 minutes occurred.

Open access

J. Bernat, S. Stępień, A. Stranz, G. Szymański and J.K. Sykulski

Abstract

An optimal control theory based method is presented aiming at minimizing the energy delivered from source and the power loss in a stepper motor circuit. A linear quadratic current regulator with an infinite time horizon is employed and its appropriateness for this type of a problem explained. With the purpose of improving the accuracy of the control system, the self and mutual inductances of windings are calculated using a finite element model. The numerically computed results are verified experimentally.

Open access

Tomasz Gruszczyński, Marzena Szostakiewicz-Hołownia, Włodzimierz Humnicki, Jerzy J. Małecki, Dorota Porowska and Marcin Stępień

Abstract

The paper presents spatial analysis and numerical methods to describe the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical conditions in a groundwater system. The research was conducted in the northern part of the Białystok High Plane, eastern Poland, within a Quaternary multi-aquifer system. Spatial analysis was used for imaging the quasi-continuous structure of the system based on a discrete set of hydrogeological data. A high-resolution regional flow model was used to identify the groundwater discharge and discharge zones of the individual aquifers. Calculations have shown a marked asymmetry of the flow system. Deeply incised river valleys in the Niemen River basin more strongly affect the groundwater than the discharge zones in the valleys of the Vistula River basin. As a result, the underground watershed in deeper aquifers is clearly shifted westward in relation to the morphological watershed. The hydrodynamic conditions of the system determined by numerical methods were used to identify the points along the groundwater flow-path for the hydrochemical study. It was the basis for the identification of points located along the groundwater flow direction, which were used in the hydrochemical study. Computational schemes of water solution models were calculated for the quasi-equilibrium state of chemical reactions between the solution and the solid and gaseous phases. Presentation of the chemical reactions allowed determining the origin of changes in the concentrations of individual components dissolved in groundwater. It was found that kaolinitization, i.e. chemical weathering of feldspars and plagioclases is the basic process that most affects the groundwater chemistry.

Open access

D. Pysz, I. Kujawa, R. Stępień, M. Klimczak, A. Filipkowski, M. Franczyk, L. Kociszewski, J. Buźniak, K. Haraśny and R. Buczyński

Abstract

A broad review is given of microstructured fiber optics components - light guides, image guides, multicapillary arrays, and photonic crystal fibers - fabricated using the stack-and-draw method from various in-house synthesized oxide soft glasses at the Glass Department of the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME). The discussion covers fundamental aspects of stack-and-draw technology used at ITME, through design methods, soft glass material issues and parameters, to demonstration of representative examples of fabricated structures and an experimental characterization of their optical properties and results obtained in typical applications. Specifically, demonstrators include microstructured image guides providing resolution of up to 16000 pixels sized up to 20 μm in diameter, and various photonic crystal fibers (PCFs): index-guiding regular lattice air-hole PCFs, hollow core photonic bandgap PCFs, or specialty PCFs like highly birefringent microstructured fibers or highly nonlinear fibers for supercontinuum generation. The presented content is put into context of previous work in the area reported by the group of authors, as well as other research teams.

Open access

Ficek K., Stepien-Slodkowska M., Kaczmarczyk M., Maciejewska-Karlowska A., Sawczuk M., Cholewinski J., Leonska-Duniec A., Zarebska A., Cieszczyk P. and Zmijewski P.

Abstract

One of the most severe injuries sustained by athletes is rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Recent investigations suggest that a predisposition for ACL rupture may be the result of specific genetic sequence variants. In light of this, we decided to investigate whether the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism was associated with ACL ruptures in Polish football players.

We compared genotypic and allelic frequencies of the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism in two groups of athletes: 91 male football players (23 ± 3 years) with surgically diagnosed primary ACL ruptures who qualified for ligament reconstruction (cases) and 143 apparently healthy, male football players of the same ethnicity, a similar age category, and a comparable level of exposure to ACL injury, who were without any self-reported history of ligament or tendon injury (controls). DNA samples extracted from the oral epithelial cells were genotyped by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (Ri-Ti- PCR) method.

The genotype distribution in the cases were not different from those in controls (p = 0.70). The frequency of the G allele was lower in the cases (18.1%) but not statistically significant (p = 0.40) when compared with controls (21.3%).

Our results are in contradiction to the hypothesis that the COL12A1 A9285G polymorphism is associated with a predisposition for ACL injury. However, these conclusions should be supported with more experimental studies on COL12A1 polymorphisms.