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J. Pieprzyca and J. Jowsa

Abstract

A common method used in identification of hydrodynamics phenomena occurring in Continuous Casting (CC) device's tundish is to determine the RTD curves of time. These curves allows to determine the way of the liquid steel flowing and mixing in the tundish. These can be identified either as the result of numerical simulation or by the experiments - as the result of researching the physical models. Special problem is to objectify it while conducting physical research. It is necessary to precisely determine the time constants which characterize researched phenomena basing on the data acquired in the measured change of the concentration of the tracer in model liquid's volume. The mathematical description of determined curves is based on the approximate differential equations formulated in the theory of fluid mechanics. Solving these equations to calculate the time constants requires a special software and it is very time-consuming. To improve the process a method was created to calculate the time constants with use of automation elements. It allows to solve problems using algebraic method, which improves interpretation of the research results of physical modeling.

Open access

J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder and M. Saternus

The way and speed of steel flux flowing into mould of continuous casting (CC) machine belong to the important parameters characterizing the steel continuous casting process. Such flux causes determined kinds of steel circulation, which together with simultaneous steel crystallization influence the creation of ingots primary structure and quality of its surface.

The article presents the results of modelling research which aim was to determine the optimal location of submerged entry nozzle in square moulds (130 x 130 mm and 160 x 160 mm) of CC machine. Such a research was carried out for two different grades of steel (low-carbon steel and high-carbon steel), which feature different parameters of casting.

Open access

J. Pieprzyca, Z. Kudliński and T. Merder

Abstract

The formation of the cast strands’ primary structure is a very complex process in terms of the thermodynamics and physicochemical. It occurs during solidification and crystallization of the liquid steel in the crystallizer and in the secondary cooling zone of the CC device. On the basis of the experience gained in the industry and knowledge arising from theory of metals and alloys solidification it can be concluded, that substantial influence on the shape of cast strands primary structure have the temperature of overheating of the liquid steel above liquidus temperature and solidification velocity. A proper control of those casting parameters allows to obtain the cast strands with desired primary structure. In the one and two-way symmetric devices regulation like this is not problematic, in the multi-way devices - specially in the asymmetric - causes a series of problems. In those devices can occur a major temperature difference in each outlet zone of the tundish working space caused by i.e. the distance length diversity of liquid steel stream from the inlet to each outlet and by disadvantageous layout of liquid steel flow zones (turbulent flow zone, plug flow and dead zones) in working area of tundish. Particularly high values of those diversity can be expected in the asymmetric tundishes.

The article presents results of laboratory research - model and industrial regarding impact of the liquid steel overheating temperature, but also heterogeneity of the temperature fields in the tundish on primary structure of the cast strands.

Open access

J. Pieprzyca, P. Warzecha, T. Merder and M. Warzecha

Abstract

The article presents experimental results on the impact of tundish flow regulator influencing the liquid steel flow course. The research was conducted based on the hybrid modelling methods understood as a complementary use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods and physical modelling. Dynamic development of numerical simulation techniques and accessibility to highly advanced and specialized software causes the fact that these techniques are commonly used for solving problems related to liquid flows by using analytical methods. Whereas, physical modelling is an important cognitive tool in the field of empirical identification of these phenomena. This allows for peer review and specification of the researched problems. By exploiting these relationships, a comparison of the obtained results was performed in the form of residence time distribution (RTD) curves and visualization of particular types of liquid steel flow distribution zones in the investigated tundish.

Open access

J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder, M. Saternus and K. Michalek

Abstract

The efficiency of vacuum steel degassing using RH methods depends on many factors. One of the most important are hydrodynamic processes occurring in the ladle and vacuum chamber. It is always hard and expensive to determine the flow character and the way of steel mixing in industrial unit; thus in this case, methods of physical modelling are applied. The article presents the results of research carried out on the water physical model of RH apparatus concerning the influence of the flux value of inert gas introduced through the suck legs on hydrodynamic conditions of the process. Results of the research have visualization character and are presented graphically as a RTD curves. The main aim of such research is to optimize the industrial vacuum steel degassing process by means of RH method.

Open access

M. Saternus, T. Merder and J. Pieprzyca

URO-200 reactor belongs to batch reactors used in refining process of aluminium and its alloys in polish foundries. The appropriate level of hydrogen removal from liquid aluminium can be obtained when the mixing of inert gas bubbles with liquid metal is uniform. Thus, the important role is played by the following parameters: flow rate of refining gas, geometry of the impeller, rotary impeller speed.

The article presents the results of research conducted on physical model of URO-200 reactor. The NaCl tracer was introduced to water (modelling liquid aluminium) and then the conductivity was measured. Basing on the obtained results the Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves were determined. The measurements were carried out for two different rotary impellers, flow rate equaled 5, 10, 15 and 20 dm3/min and rotary impeller speed from 250 to 400 rpm every 50 rpm.

Open access

J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder, M. Saternus and H. Kania

Abstract

The article presents the results of research concerning the change of liquid steel flow and mixing in the T-type tundish. It has been installed in one of polish steel plants. Continuously changing market conditions have forced the change in the range of cast strand. As a consequence the new control system of liquid steel flow had to be applied. Up to now a baffle with notch has played the role of steel flow regulation. It was placed between the inlet and channel zones of a tundish. However such solution was not satisfactory. Therefore, a new flow control equipment was designed - baffles and different constructional variants of turbulence inhibitors. To estimate the efficiency of their functioning and in the same time their influence on the tundish work, modelling research was carried out. The research was also complemented by numerical simulations. The article presents results of such research as well as experimentally and numerically determined RTD curves of mixing (Residence Time Distribution).

Open access

L. Bulkowski, U. Galisz, H. Kania, Z. Kudliński, J. Pieprzyca and J. Barański

Industrial Tests of Steel Filtering Process

The concerned paper presents results of wide scope of liquid steel filtering tests by means of ceramic filters, including laboratory, model and industrial testing in the conditions of conventional (ingot) and continuous steel casting. Multi- hole (sieve) ceramic filters made of mullite and corundum, of the structure adjusted to the type of conducted experiment were used for testing. Selection of ceramic material for filter construction accounted for the conditions of filter operations including: high temperature (liquid steel temperature), filtering duration determined by mass of the filtered steel, hydrodynamics of steel flow through filter holes an and wettablity of filter ceramics by non-metallic inclusions. In order to assess the effectiveness of liquid steel filtering in reference to unfiltered steel, the following criteria have been adopted:

- change in surface share of non-metallic inclusions,

- change in the quantity of non -metallic inclusions and dimensions thereof,

- change in total oxygen content (summary).

The obtained results of tests confirm high effectiveness of liquid steel filtering by means of ceramic filters and may constitute a basis for development of a new technology of steel refining by means of filtration.

Open access

T. Merder, J. Pieprzyca, M. Warzecha and P. Warzecha

Abstract

The article demonstrates results of modelling research tests concerning the analysis of possibilities of blowing gas into the metal bath at high flow rates in a steel ladle with a nominal capacity of 50 Mg. Various configurations concerning of gas introduction into the steel ladle were analysed. There were considered cases of blowing into the metal bath via one, two or three purging plugs, being installed on the bottom and via additional support for blowing the gas from the top through the lance.

Results obtained from the water model of the reactor were verified with the results of numerical simulations.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, M. Tkadlečková, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder and L. Pindor

Abstract

This paper deals with the issue of physical modelling of vortexes creation and tundish slag entrainment over the mouth of the nozzle into the individual casting strands. Proper physical model is equivalent to the operational continuous casting machine No. 2 in TŘINECKÉ ŽELEZÁRNY, a.s. Physical modelling methodology and simulated operational conditions are shortly described. Physical modelling was used for the evaluation of current conditions of steel casting at the application of different impact pads in the tundish. Further, laboratory measurement on the physical model aiming the determination of exact critical periods of vortexes creation and study of the slag entrainment as a consequence of changes in surface level during the tundish refilling to standard level were realised. The obtained results were analysed and discussed.