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Open access

Jacek Nawrocki and Anna Pogodzińska

Abstract

In two-year field experiments (2014 and 2015), the effect of used preparations on health status of leaves and roots and bulbs on two cultivars of garlic: ‘Arkus’ and ‘Garpek’ was studied. During investigations: Polyversum WP (Pythium oligandrum), Trifender WP (Trichoderma asperellum) and RhizoVital 42 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) and standard fungicide Topsin M 500 SC (tiophanate methyl) were used. Unprotected plants presented control. The obtained results showed that in the first year of the studies, all the tested formulations effectively protected the roots and bulbs of garlic against rot, except RhizoVital 42 for ‘Arkus’ variety and Trifender WP for cultivar ‘Garpek’. In 2015, all tested preparations, without exception, limited root rot and the rot of basal part of bulbs both cultivars of garlic. The applied biological preparations had no significant effect on health of the leaves of garlic in 2014 and in 2015 for cultivar ‘Garpek’, while in the second year of studies, all the tested formulations effectively limited the dieback of leaves of the garlic cultivar ‘Arkus’.

Open access

J. Nawrocki, W. Complak, J. Błażewicz, S. Kopczyńska and M. Maćkowiaki

The Knapsack-Lightening problem and its application to scheduling HRT tasks

In hard real-time systems timeliness is as important as functional correctness. Such systems contain so called hard real-time tasks (HRT tasks) which must be finished by a given deadline. One of the methods of scheduling of HRT tasks is periodic loading introduced by Schweitzer, Dror, and Trudeau. The paper presents an extension to that method which allows for deterministic utilization of cache memory in hard real-time systems. It is based on a new version of the Knapsack problem named Knapsack-Lightening. In the paper the Knapsack-Lightening problem is defined, its complexity is analyzed, and an exact algorithm along with two heuristics are presented. Moreover the application of the Knapsack-Lightening problem to scheduling HRT tasks is described.

Open access

A. Szczotok, J. Nawrocki and J. Pietraszek

Abstract

In the study the wall thickness of ceramic shell mould influence on (γ + γ′) eutectic in the IN713C nickel-based superalloy airfoil blade casting was described.

Two castings formed as a blade from two wax pattern assemblies were analysed. In the experiment in one pattern the thick ceramic layer was obtained on pressure side and in another one on suction side of the airfoil blade. The microstructure of the cross-sections of the castings were observed on polished and etched metallographic specimens. The microstructure and phases chemical compositions of specimens was analyzed by using the scanning electron microscope Hitachi S-4200 equipped with EDS. It was established, that wall thickness of ceramic shell mould affect size, shape and volume fraction of (γ + γ′) eutectic islands in airfoil blade made from IN713C superalloy.

The analysis was provided in accordance to the typical statistical methodology [1].

Open access

K. Łukasik, P. Nawrocki, J. Misiak and D. Myszka

Abstract

The paper attempts to analyze distortions of cast iron and cast steel rings, after heat treatment cycles. The factors influencing distortion are: chemical composition of material, sample geometry, manufacturing process, hardenability, temperature and heat treatment method. Standard distortion tests are performed on C-ring samples. We selected a ring-model, which approximate the actual part, so that findings apply to gear rings. Because distortion depends on so many variables, this study followed strictly defined procedures. The research was started by specifying the appropriate geometry of the samples. Then, the heat treatment was conducted and samples were measured again. The obtained results allow to determine the value of the resulting distortion and their admissibility. The research will be used to evaluate the possibility of using the material to produce parts of equipment operated under extreme load conditions.

Open access

P. Lejba, J. Nawrocki, S. Schillak, D. Lemański, M. Lehmann and P. Nogaś

Time Transfer Realized by PPP Technique for Trimble Netrs and TTS-4 Receivers

This paper concerns determination of clock readings and position of two geodetic receivers: TRIMBLE NetRS and TTS-4, connected to the same antenna of Dorne Margolin choke ring type (IGS BOR1 point) with the usage of precise point positioning (PPP) technique. The TTS-4 receiver was constructed and provided with its software by the time and frequency team from Borowiec Astrogeodynamical Observatory (AOS). Parameters of the receiver clocks and antenna coordinates were determined for the period from 1 to 30 April 2011. The collected data in RINEX format include code and phase observations from GPS constellation recorded with 30 second interval. The computed positions of the antenna based on RINEX data files from TRIMBLE NetRS and TTS-4 receivers are practically the same. The differences of estimated coordinates are from 0.6 to 1.6 mm. However, the accuracy of the clock parameters computed for TRIMBLE NetRS receiver are by one order lower than for TTS-4. It means that TRIMBLE NetRS receiver synchronized with internal quartz oscillator can not be used for timing applications. Currently the AOS laboratory works on the realization and development of the PPP method are in progress. Ultimately, the method will allow very precise comparison of atomic clocks and atomic time scales over great distances based on GNSS phase measurements. This method will increase the quality of comparisons of the atomic time scales carried out in the world, as well as, significantly strengthen the quality of the Polish Atomic Time Scale - TA (PL).

Open access

Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Celichowski, Maurycy Jankowski, Wiesława Kranc, Artur Bryja, Sylwia Borys-Wójcik, Michal Jeseta, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The morphological and biochemical modification of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) belongs to the group of compound processes responsible for proper oocyte transport and successful fertilization. The cellular interactions between cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) are crucial for this unique mechanism. In the present study we have analyzed angiogenesis and blood vessel development processes at transcript levels. By employing microarrays, four ontological groups associated with these mechanisms have been described. Differentially expressed genes belonging to the “angiogenesis”, “blood circulation”, “blood vessel development” and “blood vessel morphogenesis” GO BP terms were investigated as a potential markers for the creation of new blood vessels in cells under in vitro primary culture conditions.

Open access

Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Sandra Knap, Maurycy Jankowski, Magdalena Magas, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Ramlau, Andrzej Nowicki, Magdalena Rojewska, Błażej Chermuła, Michal Jeseta, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Maciej Zabel, Michał Nowicki and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The process of reproduction requires several factors, leading to successful fertilization of an oocyte by a single spermatozoon. One of them is the complete maturity of an oocyte, which is acquired during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Additionally, the oviduct, composed of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs), has a prominent influence on this event through sperm modification and supporting oocyte’s movement towards uterus. OECs were isolated from porcine oviducts. Cells were kept in primary in vitro culture for 30 days. After 24h and on days 7, 15 and 30 cells were harvested, and RNA was isolated. Transcript changes were analyzed using microarrays. Fatty acids biosynthetic process and fatty acids transport ontology groups were selected for analysis and described. Results of this study indicated that majority of genes in both ontology groups were up-regulated on day 7, 15 and 30 of primary in vitro culture. We analyzed genes involved in fatty acids biosynthetic process, including: GGT1, PTGES, INSIG1, SCD, ACSL3, FADS2, FADS1, ACSS2, ALOX5AP, ACADL, SYK, ACACA, HSD17B8, FADS3, OXSM, and transport, including: ABCC2, ACSL4, FABP3, PLA2G3, PPARA, SYK, PPARD, ACACA and P2RX7. Elevated levels of fatty acids in bovine and human oviducts are known to reduce proliferation capacity of OECs and promote inflammatory responses in their microenvironment. Most of measured genes could not be connected to reproductive events. However, the alterations in cellular proliferation, differentiation and genes expression during in vitro long-term culture were significant. Thus, we can treat them as putative markers of changes in OECs physiology.

Open access

Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Piotr Celichowski, Joanna Budna, Artur Bryja, Wiesława Kranc, Sylwia Ciesiółka, Sylwia Borys, Sandra Knap, Michal Jeseta, Ronza Khozmi, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The mammalian oocytes undergo significant biochemical and structural modifications during maturation both in vitro and in vivo. These changes involve chromatin reorganization and modification within metabolic status of cytoplasmic organelles. After oocytes’ successful maturation the substantially increased storage of RNA was observed. Moreover, the early embryo interaction with maternal endometrial tissue after fertilization is up to now considered as the main marker of proper embryo implantation and early growth. In this study, we first investigated the expression profile of genes involved in blood vessel formation and blood circulation in porcine oocytes before and after in vitro maturation.

The cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from pubertal Landrace gilts and classified as before in vitro maturation (in Vivo) or after in vitro maturation (in Vitro). The RNA was isolated from these two experimental groups and analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays.

We found an increased expression of genes involved in ontological groups such as “blood circulation” (TPM1, ECE1, ACTA2, EPHX2, EDNRA, NPR2, MYOF, TACR3, VEGFA, GUCY1B3), “blood vessel development” (ANGPTL4, CYR61, SEMA5A, ID1, RHOB, RTN4, IHH, ANGPT2, EDNRA, TGFBR3, MYO1E, MMP14), and “blood vessels morphogenesis” (ANGPT2, as well as other common transcripts) in in Vivo group as compared to decreased expression of these genes in in Vitro group of oocytes.

It has been suggested that investigated genes undergo significant expression before in vitro maturation, when enhanced storage of large amount of RNA takes place. Creating templates for synthesis of proteins is required for formation of fully mature gametes and early embryo growth. Therefore we hypothesized that the processes of vascularization and/or angiogenesis reach a high activity in immature oocytes and are distinct from achievement of maturational stage by oocytes in pigs.

Open access

Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Joanna Budna, Piotr Celichowski, Ronza Khozmi, Artur Bryja, Wiesława Kranc, Sylwia Borys, Sylwia Ciesiółka, Sandra Knap, Michal Jeseta, Dorota Bukowska, Paweł Antosik, Klaus P. Brüssow, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The morphological and biochemical modification of oviductal epithelial cells (OECs) belongs to the compound process responsible for proper oocytes transport and successful fertilization. However, the main mechanisms which regulated this process are still not entirely known. Moreover, the OECs metabolism, which may be identified as the “cellular activity” marker, is poorly recognized. In this study we investigated the fructose and mannose metabolic pathway in porcine OECs primary long-term cultured in vitro.

In our study, we employ a primary long term in vitro culture (IVC) and microarray approach (the Affymetrix microarray were used for analysis of transcriptomic profile of OECs) for expression levels analysis.

We found that from the whole analyzed transcriptome, 1537 genes were upregulated and 995 were down regulated after 7 days of culture, 1471 genes were upregulated and 1061 were downregulated after 15 days of culture and 1329 genes were upregulated and 1203 were downregulated after 30 days of culture. Moreover, the differential expression of SORD, FPGT, PFKFB4, TPI1, MPI, ALDOC, HK2 and PFKFB3 at 24 hours, 7 day, 15 day and 30 day, was also observed.

We suggested that fructose and mannose metabolism may be important molecular bio-marker of porcine OECs capability in in vitro model. The metabolic profile is significantly accompanied by cells proliferation in vitro. The transcriptomic profile of SORD, FPGT, PFKFB4, TPI1, MPI, ALDOC, HK2 and PFKFB3 expression may be identified as “fingerprint” of fructose and mannose metabolism in OECs as well as involved in cellular in vitro developmental capacity in pigs.

Open access

Wiesława Kranc, Maciej Brązert, Katarzyna Ożegowska, Joanna Budna-Tukan, Piotr Celichowski, Maurycy Jankowski, Artur Bryja, Mariusz J. Nawrocki, Małgorzata Popis, Michal Jeseta, Leszek Pawelczyk, Mariusz Skowroński, Paweł Antosik, Dorota Bukowska, Małgorzata Bruska, Michał Nowicki, Maciej Zabel and Bartosz Kempisty

Abstract

The efficiency of the process of obtaining mature oocytes, and then of porcine embryos in vitro depends on many factors and requires meeting many conditions. These include selection of morphologically appropriate oocytes, selection of appropriate medium components, as well as a number of abiotic factors (appropriate microenvironment during in vitro culture).

Oocytes were taken from 45 pubertal crossbred Landrace gilts. The BCB test was carried out. BCB + oocytes were divided into two groups: “before IVM” and “after IVM”. “Before IVM” oocytes were subjected to molecular analyzes immediately after collection, while “after IVM” oocytes underwent in vitro maturation and then the second BCB test. Oocytes that remained BCB+ after the second test were used for molecular analyzes using Affymetrix expression microarrays.

A group of genes responsible for response to organic substance and response to abiotic stimulus, which underwent significant changes (decrease) was discovered after oocyte in vitro maturation. Genes such as MM, PLDP, SERPINH, MYOF, DHX9, HSPA5, VCP, KIT, SERPINH1, PLD1, and VCP showed the largest decrease after the culture period. The levels of these genes were therefore elevated in oocytes before the in vitro maturation process.

In conclusion, a number of organic and abiotic factors have an impact on the process of the oocyte in vitro maturation. The presented results confirm the literature data in which the low efficiency of obtaining mature oocytes in in vitro conditions is mentioned, which further impacts the amount of viable embryos obtained.