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Jiří Malý

Abstract

Small towns play a key role in providing services for its wider hinterland. However, emerging economic importance of the largest agglomerations and increasing involvement of settlements in urban networks have transformed a relationship between the size of settlements and their expected urban function. In this context, the concepts of “borrowed size” and “agglomeration shadow” serve to explain the impact of network externalities on urban function but pay a little attention to service function of small towns. The paper aims at revealing the extent to which the provision of services is determined by location of small towns within a regional urban system strongly affected by a metropolitan area. The results show coexisting occurrence of the processes of borrowed size and agglomeration shadow and the importance of tourist and commercial attractiveness of particular places (towns) to final provision of services.

Open access

Jiří Malý and Ondřej Mulíček

Abstract

Contemporary EU territorial cohesion policy presents some striking reminders of features of socialist central planning. The objective of socio-spatial solidarity aimed at balanced spatial development is a core principle of both spatial planning doctrines. Reviewing key planning documents, this article compares territorial cohesion discourses in terms of their normative and analytical natures in order to critically evaluate the uniqueness and novelty of the current modern concept. In spite of ideological contradictions, a commonly-shared realisation of the importance of urban agglomerations as specific integrated spatial units and the need to improve living conditions in disadvantaged areas, are crucial characteristics for both spatial planning policies. Moreover, analytical spatial planning procedures are based on similar methods and lead to nearly identical results concerning the spatial pattern for one specific case settlement system (the South Moravian Region, Czech Republic). In this respect, the currently-emphasised territorial cohesion discourse is familiar to that in former socialist areas in Central and Eastern Europe. Based on these findings, spatial planning authorities should learn from the past in reflecting on the limitations and advantages of spatial planning in the socialist era.

Open access

M. Reimanis, L. Mezule, J. Ozolins, J. Malers and T. Juhna

Nowadays electrochemical disinfection has gained an increasing attention as an alternative to conventional drinking water disinfection, since it is regarded as environmentally friendly, amendable to automation, inexpensive, easily operated and is known to inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms from bacteria to viruses and algae. We found that along with increasing the number of electrodes in our equipment from 2 to 24, the resistance of chlorine-generating electrolytic cell and specific work of electric current decreased. During the electrolysis the amount of generated Cl2 increased along with the increase of chloride ion concentration in the solution and the intensity of electric current. The technological process parameters (flow rate, current intensity) have been established to obtain a predetermined amount of generated chlorine during the electrolysis process. A comparison of flow and circulating (3 times) regimes for electrolysis of tap water with chloride ion concentration below 10 mg/L showed that circulation is necessary to generate active chlorine (above 1 mg/L).

At the same time, when no circulation was performed, even a 0.9 A treatment was not enough to generate detectable levels of free chlorine. Electrochemical disinfection of tap water with non-stoichiometric titanium oxide electrodes was effective enough to inactivate both metabolically active and cultivable bacteria E. coli to undetectable levels within 15 minutes at 0.5 A current intensity.