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Open access

Jan Kozłowski and Monika Jaskulska

Abstract

Herbivorous slugs do significant damage to many species of crop plants. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the rate and extent of damage caused to 16 plant species by Arion vulgaris, Arion rufus, and Deroceras reticulatum. It was found, that levels of damage caused to young plants of Brassica napus, Sorghum bicolor, Vicia faba, and Sinapis alba by the slugs A. vulgaris, A. rufus, and D. reticulatum were similar, while levels of damage caused to the other studied plants by particular slug species differed significantly. Based on the results of the damage by the investigated slug species, plants were categorised as heavily or lightly damaged.

Open access

J. Ziółko, M. Gizejowski and A. Kozłowski

Open access

M. Perzyk, J. Kozlowski and M. Wislocki

Abstract

The paper discusses two main approaches utilized in contemporary industry to control of discrete and continuous manufacturing processes: Statistical Process Control and Engineering Process Control as well as applications of learning systems and time-series analysis in the control systems. The use of time-series techniques for anticipated control of selected foundry processes is presented and positively evaluated using industry data obtained from the green molding sand processing.

Open access

M. Kozłowski, E. Czerwosz, J. Radomska, K. Sobczak and P.A. Dłużewski

Abstract

Properties of palladium nanograins obtained by sedimentation of a soluted C-Pd film prepared by PVD method are presented. These properties were studied using SEM and TEM methods. Dissolved films were prepared by PVD method and after dissolving, they were fractionated to obtain different parts classified with palladium nanograins diameters. Several classes of diameters were determined: below 20 nm, between 20 and 100 nm and above 100 nm. The defects and triple junction were observed. Multishell carbonaceous structures were found in the big and medium size Pd nanograins.

Open access

B. Zdonek, I. Szypuła, J. Kozłowski and S. Szczęch

Secondary Steel Refining for Continuous Sequence Bloom Casting for High Oxide Cleanness Final Products

Steelmaking and secondary refining process technology of resulphurized liquid steel with low content of total oxygen, assigned for continuous casting of strands for rolled and forged products for automotive industry was developed. The influence of secondary steel refining parameters on total oxygen content as well as amount and morphology of non-metallic inclusions was examined. It was found, that content of total oxygen and amount of non-metallic inclusions in steel decrease as steel refining time in the ladle becomes longer, and the chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions in steel changes from modified calcium aluminates to spinel inclusion of CaO·Al2 O 3·MgO type. The total oxygen content in steel from continuous casting in four cast sequence ranged from 6 to 25 ppm, with percentage share of non-metallic inclusions from 0.09 to 0.30 per cent and equivalent diameter 0.78 to 1.59 μm.

Open access

M. Perzyk and J. Kozlowski

Abstract

Statistical Process Control (SPC) based on the Shewhart’s type control charts, is widely used in contemporary manufacturing industry, including many foundries. The main steps include process monitoring, detection the out-of-control signals, identification and removal of their causes. Finding the root causes of the process faults is often a difficult task and can be supported by various tools, including data-driven mathematical models. In the present paper a novel approach to statistical control of ductile iron melting process is proposed. It is aimed at development of methodologies suitable for effective finding the causes of the out-of-control signals in the process outputs, defined as ultimate tensile strength (Rm) and elongation (A5), based mainly on chemical composition of the alloy. The methodologies are tested and presented using several real foundry data sets. First, correlations between standard abnormal output patterns (i.e. out-of-control signals) and corresponding inputs patterns are found, basing on the detection of similar patterns and similar shapes of the run charts of the chemical elements contents. It was found that in a significant number of cases there was no clear indication of the correlation, which can be attributed either to the complex, simultaneous action of several chemical elements or to the causes related to other process variables, including melting, inoculation, spheroidization and pouring parameters as well as the human errors. A conception of the methodology based on simulation of the process using advanced input - output regression modelling is presented. The preliminary tests have showed that it can be a useful tool in the process control and is worth further development. The results obtained in the present study may not only be applied to the ductile iron process but they can be also utilized in statistical quality control of a wide range of different discrete processes.

Open access

Laurie J. Reitsema and Tomasz Kozłowski

Abstract

The 1st-4th c. AD Wielbark culture of Eastern Europe is relatively understudied bioarchaeologically due to the fragmentary nature of its cemeteries. Here, we report the first stable isotope analysis of Wielbark diet using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures from both collagen and carbonate of 30 individuals from Rogowo, a 2nd c. Wielbark cemetery in North-Central Poland. Diet at Rogowo was primarily based on terrestrial foods and included millet, a C4 plant cultivated by many Slavic populations in Europe. Anadromous fish likely supplemented the diet, which is clarified when considering collagen and carbonate data in tandem. Stable isotope differences between the sexes indicate that men and women may have consumed different foods, although there is a possibility that women immigrated to Rogowo from an isotopically different region of Europe. No significant differences are noted in δ13C or δ15N of women with and without grave goods, suggesting little social differentiation within the Wielbark culture, at least in terms of daily food access. Reconstructing human diet in Europe through stable isotope analysis is problematic because of the relative isotopic homogeneity in this region of the world. This study further demonstrates the utility of using both carbonate and collagen stable isotope data in tandem to reconstruct past European diet.

Open access

M. Kozłowski, J. Wilczak, T. Motyl and M. Gajewska

Role of extracellular matrix and prolactin in functional differentiation of bovine BME-UV1 mammary epithelial cells

Interactions between extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial cells are necessary for proper organisation and function of the epithelium. In the present study we show that bovine mammary epithelial cell line BME-UV1 cultured on ECM components, commercially available as Matrigel™, constitutes a good model for studying mechanisms controlling functional differentiation of the bovine mammary gland. In contact with Matrigel BME-UV1 cells induce apicobasal polarity, and within 16 days form three dimensional (3D) acinar structures with a centrally localized hollow lumen, which structurally resemble mammary alveoli present in the functionally active mammary gland. We have shown that the 3D culture system enables a high expression and proper localisation of integrin receptors and tight junction proteins in BME-UV1 cells to be induced. This effect was not obtained in cells grown in the classical 2D culture system on plastic. Moreover, ECM highly stimulated the synthesis of one of the major milk proteins, β-casein, even in the absence of prolactin. Our results show that contact with ECM plays an important role in the lactogenic activity of bovine MECs, however, prolactin is necessary for the efficient secretion of milk proteins.

Open access

M. Kozłowski, W. Choromański and J. Kowara

Abstract

The paper presents the issue of modelling the system of the PRT vehicle – track. The PRT – Personal Rapid Transit concept is defined as an innovative transport system composed of small vehicles (3–5 persons) moving on the light infrastructure situated at a height of above 5 meters above the ground. This is a system that combines the features of individual and public transport. An important feature of this system is the implementation of the transport approach known as the ‘point to point’ rule that is to say between the initial and the final stop the vehicle does not stop at the intermediate stops. The vehicle has no driver. Routing choice and collision avoidance are performed through a complex computer system.

Open access

Z. Ignaszak, R. Sika, M. Perzyk, A. Kochański and J. Kozłowski

Abstract

The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate) and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module) and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.