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Open access

Julian Jakubowski and Jozef Peterka

Abstract

Design for manufacturing (DFM) strategies help companies to develop new products that are feasible to manufacture. In the early stages of design all engineering activities are initiated in computer aided systems. When the design is finished, the process of manufacturing and production planning begins. Issues often occur at this point because two teams, designers and manufacturers, have been working separately. The resulting question is: ‘how can Knowledge Engineering (KE) be used effectively to enhance manufacturability during early design?’ Even if the most complex geometrical product can be realized using today’s technologies such as rapid prototyping it is only true in unit production. In lot and mass production where CNC machines are used, complex geometry causes a number of difficulties. So it is important to investigate the project carefully in the early design stage from the point of view of whether it will be possible to manufacture.

Open access

J. Jakubowski, J.B. Stypulkowski and F.G. Bernardeau

Abstract

The first phase of the Abu Hamour drainage and storm tunnel was completed in early 2017. The 9.5 km long, 3.7 m diameter tunnel was excavated with two Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) Tunnel Boring Machines from Herrenknecht. TBM operation processes were monitored and recorded by Data Acquisition and Evaluation System. The authors coupled collected TBM drive data with available information on rock mass properties, cleansed, completed with secondary variables and aggregated by weeks and shifts. Correlations and descriptive statistics charts were examined. Multivariate Linear Regression and CART regression tree models linking TBM penetration rate (PR), penetration per revolution (PPR) and field penetration index (FPI) with TBM operational and geotechnical characteristics were performed for the conditions of the weak/soft rock of Doha. Both regression methods are interpretable and the data were screened with different computational approaches allowing enriched insight. The primary goal of the analysis was to investigate empirical relations between multiple explanatory and responding variables, to search for best subsets of explanatory variables and to evaluate the strength of linear and non-linear relations. For each of the penetration indices, a predictive model coupling both regression methods was built and validated. The resultant models appeared to be stronger than constituent ones and indicated an opportunity for more accurate and robust TBM performance predictions.

Open access

M. Jafari Vardanjani, A. Araee, J. Senkara, J. Jakubowski and J. Godek

Abstract

Few aspects of shunting effect have been studied so far. Shunting effect in resistance spot welding (RSW) occurs when the electrical current passes through the previous spot welds. Value of this current depends mostly on distance, number, and size of previous spot welds. This will cause some dimensional and metallurgical changes in welding nugget as well as heat affected zone (HAZ). In this study, shunting effect of RSW is considered by finite element method (FEM) and the results are compared to experiments performed on aluminum alloy 2219. Weld spacing together with welding current and time are considered to discover the effect of shunting current in the final quality of nugget. A three factor experiment design has been performed to find the significance of factors and interactive effects, as well as finite element model verification. Electrothermal and mechanical interactions are considered in the FEM. Experimental and numerical solutions have yielded similar results in terms of welding nugget properties. Asymmetry in electrical potential, temperature, stress distribution and geometry of shunted nugget is predicted and verified directly or indirectly. Intense effect of shunting current on nugget height, asymmetric growth of heat affected zone (HAZ) toward previous welding nugget, as well as concentration of alloying elements along grain boundaries are also discovered.

Open access

M. Bober, J. Jakubowski, A. Radziszewski and J. Senkara

Abstact

The paper presents results of investigations of the microstructure and selected properties of improved composite coatings consisting mainly of nickel matrix reinforced by WC particles. The coatings were obtained by flame spraying of powders mixture on non-alloy steel substrates with following material remelting. Structural investigations were performed using both optical and electron microscopy. The distribution of microhardness and abrasion resistance of deposited coatings were also determined. The complex structure of coatings and resulting high wear withstand are the consequence of an intensive action of liquid matrix with dissolving tungsten carbide particles and formation of secondary phases.

Open access

Władysław Surała, Marek J. Sadowski, Roch Kwiatkowski, Lech Jakubowski and Jarosław Żebrowski

Abstract

The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF) experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8) measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds) and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip) were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric), krypton (1.6% volumetric), or xenon (0.8% volumetric), decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes), which can be formed near the observed hot spots.