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J. Gondro, K. Błoch, M. Nabiałek and S. Walters

Abstract

This paper presents the results of investigations into the microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe86Zr7Nb1Cu1B5, Fe82Zr7Nb2Cu1B8 and Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5 alloys. The alloys were investigated in their as-quenched state, in the form of thin ribbons with approximate dimensions as follows: width 3 mm and thickness 20 μm.

The investigations were performed utilizing Mössbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffractometry. Also, an evaluation of the low-field magnetic susceptibility and measurements of the magnetization versus temperature and magnetizing field were performed.

Open access

J. Gondro, K. Błoch, M. Nabiałek, K. Waltters and M. Szota

Abstract

In this paper, the results of investigations are presented, into the microstructure and magnetic properties of the following amorphous alloys in the as-quenched state: Fe82Zr7Nb2Cu1B8 and Fe86Zr4Y3Nb1Cu1B5. The studied material was produced in the form of thin ribbons of 3 mm width and 20 μm thickness. The structure and microstructure of the samples have been investigated by means of Mössbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffractometry. In addition, the magnetic properties of these materials have been determined, i.e. the low-field magnetic susceptibility, and the magnetisation as a function of temperature and magnetising field.

On the basis of the performed investigations, it has been found that a minor change in the quantities of elements favouring amorphisation, such as: Zr and Y, has an influence on the value of the Curie temperature and the magnetic properties of the resulting alloys. It should be noticed that the changes, introduced in the chemical composition of the alloys, don’t change the combined volume of these elements, i.e. Zr7 and Zr4Y3.

Open access

J. Gondro, K. Błoch, P. Brągiel, M. Nabiałek and M. Szota

Three distinct alloys: Fe86Zr7Nb1Cu1B5, Fe82Zr7Nb2Cu1B8, and Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5 were characterized both magnetically and structurally. The samples, obtained with spinning roller method as a ribbons 3 mm in width and 20 μm thick, were investigated as-quenched and after each step of a multi steps heating treatment procedure. Each sample was annealed at four steps, fifteen minutes at every temperature, starting from 573K+600K up to +700K depending on type of alloy. Mössbauer spectroscopy data and transmission electron microscope (HRE M) pictures confirmed that the as-quenched samples are fully amorphous. This is not changed after the first stages of treatment heating leads to a reduction of free volumes. The heating treatment has a great influence on the magnetic susceptibilities. The treatment up to 600K improves soft magnetic properties: an χ increase was observed, from about 400 to almost 1000 for the samples of alloys without Pt, and from about 200 to 450 at maximum, for the Fe81Pt5Zr7Nb1Cu1B5. Further heating, at more elevated temperatures, leads to magnetic hardening of the samples. Curie temperatures, established from the location of Hopkinson’s maxima on the χ(T) curve are in very good agreement with those obtained from the data of specific magnetization, σ(T), measured in a field of 0.75T. As a critical parameter β was chosen to be equal 0.36 for these calculations, it confirmed that the alloys may be considered as ferromagnetic of Heisenberg type. Heating treatment resulted in decreasing of TC. These changes are within a range of several K.

Open access

M. Dośpiał, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota and J. Gondro

Abstract

The magnetization reversal processes of bulk Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy in the as-quenched state have been investigated. From the analysis of the initial magnetization curve and differential susceptibility versus an internal magnetic field it was deduced, that the main mechanism of magnetization reversal process is the pinning of domain walls at the grain’s boundaries of the Nd2Fe14B phase. Basing on the dependence of the reversible magnetization component as a function of magnetic field it was found that reversible rotation of a magnetic moment vector and motion of domain walls in multi-domain grains result in high initial values of the reversible component. The presence of at least two maxima on differential susceptibility of irreversible magnetization component in function of magnetic field imply existence of few pinning sites of domain walls in Fe64Co5Nd6Y6B19 alloy. The dominant interactions between particles have been determined on the basis of the Wohlfarth dependence. Such a behavior of Wohlfarth’s plot implies that the dominant interaction between grains becomes short range exchange interactions.

Open access

K. Błoch, M. Nabiałek, J. Gondro and M. Szota

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the nature of the structural defects that have a major influence on the magnetisation process within the investigated alloys. The structure of the alloys in the as-quenched state was investigated by means of X-ray diffractometry. It was confirmed that the samples were amorphous. The magnetisation was measured within magnetic fields ranging from 0 to 2T using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The investigation of the ‘magnetisation in the area close to ferromagnetic saturation’ showed that, for this class of alloys, the magnetisation process in strong magnetic fields is connected with the following two influences: 1) Firstly, the rotation of the magnetic moments in the vicinity of the defects, which are the sources of the short-range stresses, and, 2) The dumping of the thermally-induced spin waves by the magnetic field. In the case of the Fe63Co10Y7B20 alloy, the magnetisation process is connected with both point and linear defects, whereas for the Fe64Co10Y6B20 alloy, only with linear defects. This suggests that the size of the defects, determining the character of the magnetisation in the vicinity of ferromagnetic saturation, depends on the atomic packing density. On the basis of analysis of the magnetisation curves, the spin wave stiffness parameter (Dsp) was calculated.

Open access

P. Pietrusiewicz, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota, M. Dośpiał, K. Błoch, J. Gondro and K. Gruszka

Abstract

The influence of isothermal annealing on the magnetisation process in strong magnetic fields of the amorphous Fe61Co10Y8Ni1B20 alloy ribbons was investigated. Samples in the form of ribbons were produced by rapid quenching of liquid alloy on a rotating copper wheel. In order to study the relaxation process, the investigated Fe61Co10Y8Ni1B20 samples were subjected to annealing below the crystallisation temperature at 700 K for 1 h and then at 770 K for 3.5 h. The structure of the samples was examined by X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD). It was found, that all of measured samples in the as-cast state and after thermal treatment, were amorphous. On the basis of virgin magnetisation curve analysis, the type, size and density of structural defects occurring in the investigated samples were determined. It was found that after the first stage of annealing, decay of linear defects (pseudo-dislocation dipoles) into smaller, more thermodynamically stable, point defects occurs. The presence of point like defects was also confirmed after the second stage of annealing.

Open access

K. Gruszka, M. Nabiałek, M. Szota, K. Bloch, J. Gondro, P. Pietrusiewicz, A.V. Sandu, A.M. Mustafa Al Bakri, S. Walters, K. Walters, S. Garus, M. Dośpiał and J. Mizera

Abstract

The paper presents the results of structural and magnetic properties and thermal stability for a group of functional materials based on Fe61Co10Zr2.5Hf2.5Me2W2B20 (where Me = Mo, Nb, Ni or Y). Samples were obtained in the form of ribbons using melt-spinning method. The X-ray diffraction patterns of investigated samples confirmed their amorphous structure. Based on the analysis of DSC curves characteristic temperatures: glass forming temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tx) and temperature range of the supercooled liquid ΔTx were determined. Small addition of transition metals elements has strong influence on magnetic and thermal parameters of studied materials. The comprehensive studies revealed that in terms of magnetic properties the Ni-addition resulted in highest reduction in coercivity and anisotropy field.