Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author: J. Gawroński x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

J. Gawronski and B. Pietrzyk

The required high mechanical strength and the reliability of implants on one side and a lack of toxic elements in those materials, on the other side, causes restrictions in use of metal alloys for austenitic steel, alloys of cobalt matrix and even titanium alloys. However, elements harmful to human body structure such as chromium, nickel and vanadium could not have been eliminated so far. An attempt to reduce detrimental effects of above elements on the living organism are surface modifications of materials predicted for implants through the deposition of protective layers.

The C/HAp composite coating was prerared by deposition of carbon layer directly on surgical steel with RF PACVD method and manufacturing of hydroxyapatite layer by sol-gel method. It was proved that carbon film significantly increases adhesion of the composite C/HAp coating. It is due to the diffusive character of bonding between carbon layer and metallic substrate not only by adhesion as in the case with hydroxyapatite deposited directly on metal base. Adhesion of both synthesized coatings was determined using nanoindentation technique. X-Ray diffraction was used for phase composition evaluation. Atomic Force Microscope revealed topography of raw, carbon and C/HAp surfaces. Elemental composition of carbon and composite layers was investigated by scanning electron microscope equipped with x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy detector.

Open access

G. Gumienny, B. Kacprzyk and J. Gawroński

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the research on the effect of copper on the crystallization process, microstructure and selected properties of the compacted graphite iron. Compacted graphite in cast iron was obtained using Inmold process. The study involved the cast iron containing copper at a concentration up to approximately 4%. The effect of copper on the temperature of the eutectic crystallization as well as the temperature of start and finish of the austenite transformation was given. It has been shown that copper increases the maximum temperature of the eutectic transformation approximately by 5°C per 1% Cu, and the temperature of the this transformation finish approximately by 8°C per 1% Cu. This element decreases the temperature of the austenite transformation start approximately by 5°C per 1% Cu, and the finish of this transformation approximately by 6°C per 1% Cu. It was found that in the microstructure of the compacted graphite iron containing about 3.8% Cu, there are still ferrite precipitations near the compacted graphite. The effect of copper on the hardness of cast iron and the pearlite microhardness was given. This stems from the high propensity to direct ferritization of this type of cast iron. It has been shown copper increases the hardness of compacted graphite iron both due to its pearlite forming action as well as because of the increase in the pearlite microhardness (up to approx. 3% Cu). The conducted studies have shown copper increases the hardness of the compacted graphite iron approximately by 35 HB per 1% Cu.

Open access

G. Gumienny, B. Kurowska, T. Szymczak and J. Gawroński

Abstract

The paper presents results of the research work concerning effects of nickel concentration on the crystallization process, microstructure and selected properties of the compacted graphite iron. Compacted graphite in the cast iron was obtained with use of the Inmold process. The study has comprised the cast iron containing nickel up to concentration providing obtainment of austenitic microstructure of the matrix. The effect of the nickel on temperature of the eutectic crystallization was specified. It has been presented composition of the cast iron matrix in function of nickel concentration in a casting with wall thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm. Moreover, it has been presented conditions defining the possibility of obtaining an austenitic and martensitic compacted graphite iron. Effect of the nickel on hardness of the cast iron was described.

Open access

Joanna Sobiecka, Wojciech Gawroński, Marta Kądziołka, Paweł Kruszelnicki, Jadwiga Kłodecka-Różalska and Ryszard Plinta

Abstract

The quality of training conditions affects sporting success, injuries and health. The aim of the work was to present the conditions during the preparations of Polish athletes for the Summer Paralympic Games 2004-2012. The study encompassed 271 paralympians: Athens (91), Beijing (89) and London (91), competing in 13 disciplines. The research was based on a two-part questionnaire by Kłodecka-Różalska adjusted for disabled sports, and was conducted one month before each PG. Part 1 contained 20 closed-ended questions regarding conditions during preparations, while Part 2 concerned socio-demographic and sports-related data. Three levels of conditions: good, satisfactory and poor, were identified. The analysis showed that while the relationships between the athletes were good in all the preparatory periods, the co-operation with the paralympic coaches worsened. The standards of accommodation, food and sports facilities lowered. Personal orthopaedic supply was satisfactory in London; personal sporting equipment was good at all PG. The quality of medical care was the highest in London. The co-operation with physicians, physiotherapists and massage therapists was satisfactory. Consultations with the dietician were sporadic and assessed as poor. Psychological consultations were rare but satisfactory in Beijing and London. Contacts with the mass media were poor at all PG. Although combining private life, work, and education with sport was satisfactory, it was increasingly difficult to manage, particularly before London. The conditions during preparations for the PG 2004-2012 varied. Improvement was noticed only in the quality of medical care and personal orthopaedic supply.