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  • Author: J. Ferreira x
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Abstract

Background: Today, social media seems to be a common forum for sharing information, discuss ideas and knowledge. The number of social media users are at increasing trend even in developing countries. The importance of using social media, especially in delivering healthcare services information, include the creation of awareness and firsthand information of health and health-related issues (effect of adverse drug reactions, reporting, among others). Purpose: The main objective of this work is to outline and discuss the opportunities and challenges of using social media in the health area. Specifically, the objectives of this paper are to compare the role of health professionals and consumers with special reference to social media; detect the validity of the information available in social media, and understand how to deal with incorrect/false information, and to analyze the main characteristics of the publications on the subject social media in healthcare.

Methods: This article is a narrative review, also a descriptive quantitative research, using the techniques of bibliometrics and sociometry in order to obtain information relevant to the subject in question. Results: The results presented the countries, researchers and universities that produced the most on the subject, and demonstrated the efficiency of bibliometrics and sociometry techniques for health research, going beyond a narrative review.

Conclusion: It is concluded that social media is a competitive differential in the provision of health services. To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback. Suggestion: To this end, institutions should empower their employees, encourage them to seek and convey reliable and accurate information, monitor routines, and evaluate results through user feedback.

Abstract

This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years) agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT) (p = 0.01), the omission error rate (p = 0.027) and the decision error rate (p = 0.011), with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039) and rest (p = 0.023). Mean ± SE of RT (ms) was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003) and rest (p = 0.001). Mean ± SE of omission errors (%) was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (%) was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise.

Abstract

In the Baixo Vouga region of north-central Portugal, forests occupy half of the territory, of which two thirds are Eucalypts plantations. The hydrological implications of this large-scale introduction of eucalypt are unknown and the aim of this exploratory study, realized in the Caramulo Mountains, was to describe overland flow (OLF), subsurface flow (SSF) and stream flow (Q) in a catchment dominated by Eucalyptus plantations. The main conclusions are that annual OLF rate is low, spatially heterogeneous between 0.1% and 6% and concentrated during the wet season as saturation excess, particularly as return flow. Infiltration-excess OLF due to the strong soil water repellence (SWR) is dominant during dry season, but produces residual runoff amount. SSF is the principal mechanism of runoff formation. It originates from matrix flow and pipe flow at the soil-bedrock interface, principally during the wet season. Matrix flow is correlated with soil moisture (SM) content, with a threshold of 25 %. Pipe flow starts with saturation of soil bottom but without saturation of the entire soil profile, due to a large network of macropores. Stream flow response is highly correlated with matrix flow behaviour in timing and intensity. SWR induces a very patchy moistening of the soil, concentrates the fluxes and accelerates them almost 100 times greater than normal percolation of the water in the matrix.

Abstract

Intrapopulation recurrent selection (IRS) has proven to be a promising breeding method in eucalyptus, mainly through being easier to carry out when compared to reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS). However, the recombination strategies in IRS that have not yet been compared. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the efficiency of different recombination methods in IRS. To do so, computer simulation was used considering different heritabilities (0.1, 0.5, 1.0), different initial allelic frequencies (0.2, 0.8) and allelic interactions without dominance and with complete dominance. The initial population consisted of 1000 individuals, which were selected at random for the beginning of cycle zero. These individuals were interbred two by two. Three selection strategies were carried out and, consequently, three recombination methods: recombine the best individuals selected within the best progenies; the best individuals phenotypically selected regardless of their genealogy; or selection in the mean value of the best progenies selected. It was observed that recombination of the best individuals regardless of their genealogy and of the best individuals within the best progenies provided for gains superior to recombination having only the mean of the progenies as reference. The average degree of dominance and the heritability of the trait should be considered at the time of choosing the method of selection followed by recombination.

Abstract

Snakes have diverse feeding and living habits, being exposed to a variety of endoparasite communities. However, more studies are still necessary to document these relationships. We examined 18 specimens of the cat-eyed snake Leptodeira annulata from a semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil. Eight taxa of parasites were found, with higher prevalence of cystacanths (Acanthocephala). Five nematode species (Hexametra boddaertii, Oswaldocruzia sp., Oxyascaris sp., Physaloptera sp. and Raillietnema spectans) and the pentastome Raillietiella furcocerca represent a new parasitism record for the host studied. Our results also showed that L. annulata could act as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. These results contribute to the knowledge of the helminth fauna of L. annulata.

Summary

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) provides recommendations to improve the editorial standards and scientific quality of biomedical journals. These recommendations range from uniform technical requirements to more complex and elusive editorial issues including ethical aspects of the scientific process. Recently, registration of clinical trials, conflicts of interest disclosure, and new criteria for authorship, emphasizing the importance of responsibility and accountability, have been proposed. Last year, a new editorial initiative to foster sharing of clinical trial data was launched. This review discusses this novel initiative with the aim of increasing awareness among readers, investigators, authors and editors belonging to the Editors’ Network of the European Society of Cardiology.