N. Sasanelli, N. Vovlas, C. Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, G. Lucarelli, J. E. Palomares-Rius and P. Castillo
Severe infections of parsley plants and soil infestations with Meloidogyne javanica during an autumn surveys for the pathogenic root-knot nematode infestations were found in Monopoli at Bari province in Southern Italy. This unusual severe infection of parsley, considered a winter crop, was possibly instigated by a very warm autumn from the previous year. Nematodes were extracted from soil samples according to the Coolen’s method. Morphological analysis (based on stylet length, tail length and shape, adult females perineal pattern, excretory pore position and Ep/stylet ratio) and molecular studies were used for the nematode characterization and identification. In the soil of infested area a severely deformed root systems were observed, showing a galling rate = 2.5 - 4 (scale 0-5) and a soil nematode population densities ranging from 350 to 2,730 eggs and J2 per 5 g of fresh root. M. javanica attack on parsley roots is a limiting factor for plant growth. Considering that curly-leaf parsley varieties resistant to the nematodes are not yet available control strategies must be focused on reduction of soil infestation level below tolerance limit of the target nematode species. Due to the higher cost and reduced availability of fumigant and non-fumigant nematicides, soil solarization, organic amendments or biological control approaches should be preferably used as alternatives.
E.A. Tzortzakakis, A. Archidona-Yuste, C. Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, I.G. Birmpilis, E. Nasiou, J.E. Palomares-Rius and P. Castillo
The occurrence of nematodes of the family Longidoridae was investigated in soil samples collected from cultivated and wild olives and grapevines in Crete. The first-stage juveniles of Xiphinema cretense and X. herakliense are described for the first time. The species X. israeliae, X. cretense, X. herakliense and Longidorus pseudoelongatus, previously recorded exclusively from olives in Crete, are herein reported in the rhizosphere of grapevines. Also L. iranicus is reported for the first time in cultivated olive, while X. italiae and L. closelongatus are reported for the first time in wild olive in Crete. Data on the occurrence of phytoparasitic nematode species in cultivated olives, wild olives and grapevines are updated with those previously published.