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Ł. Rogal and J. Dutkiewicz

Abstract

Semi-solid processing (SSP) belongs to advance method of forming metal alloys in the solidus-liquidus range. Such technology requires a fine globular microstructure in a semi-solid range, which can be produced by numerous methods. The present paper focuses on two methods of preparation of a globular microstructure in X210CrW12 tool steel as a possible way of preparation of feedstock for thixoforming: hot plastic deformation (SIMA), and modification with boron. DSC analysis allowed to establish the amount of liquid phase fraction vs temperature. Samples were heated up to the semi-solid temperature range - 1230°C, which corresponds to 17% (SIMA) and 30% (modified) of the liquid fraction. Then they were rapidly cooled. The obtained microstructures of samples were investigated for their suitability for SSP. The microstructure of X210CrW12 steel prepared by SIMA shows a globular microstructure with average grain size 57 μm. The samples after modification with 0.08% (weight pct) boron also feature a globular microstructure with the size of 46 μm. The grains possess an austenitic structure and are surrounded by an eutectic mixture

Open access

J. Dutkiewicz and W. Maziarz

Structure and Properties of Nano-Crystalline Ti-Base Alloys Obtained by Vacuum Hot Pressing

The cp-Ti and Ti-base alloys with additions of Ta and Nb were ball milled and consolidated using vacuum hot pressing. This novel technique allowed to obtain a high level of densification of milled powders up to about 98% and the nanometric grain size level. In the samples of vacuum hot compacted cp-Ti grain size of a single α phase was estimated at 140 nm. With the increase of content the β-stabilizing elements in alloys such as Ta and Nb, structure and a grain size has been changed. In the case of Ti-5Ta-5Nb alloy, also single α phase was observed but with grains size was much smaller, close to 85 nm. The further increasing of the content of Ta and Nb caused further refinement of grain size down to 60 nm and change of structure into two phase α+β and β in case of Ti-10Ta-10Nb and Ti-15Ta-15Nb alloys respectively. The hardness and Young Modulus were measured using the dynamic hardness tester and calculations of hardness and elastic modulus values were based on Oliver and Pharr model.

Open access

M. Gajewska, J. Dutkiewicz and J. Morgiel

The microstructure and microhardness of a ball milled and hot pressed aluminium powder with 10 vol.% of magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) were investigated. It was expected that the addition of a Mg3N2 as an nitrogen-bearing substrate would allow to obtain an in situ reaction leading to a formation of an aluminium nitride (AlN) strenghtening phase. The powders were milled in a high energy planetary ball mill for up to 40 h and then compacted in vacuum at 400ºC/600 MPa. The material was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microhardness tests. The performed investigations showed that the composite preparation method provided a significant structure refinement of the material - the average matrix grain size of composite compact was about ˜140 nm. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) analysis of Al/Mg3N2 compact combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique indicated a presence of Mg3N2 as well as Mg-Al-O phase, which were probably formed during hot pressing. Microhardness tests showed nearly 40% increase in the hardness of Al/Mg3N2 composite over the non-reinforced aluminium compact.

Open access

K. Konopka, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska and J. Dutkiewicz

Methods of enhancing of mechanical properties of ceramic-metal composites, particularly fracture toughness by introducing dispersed metal particles such as W, Mo, Ni, Al, etc to a ceramic matrix are well known. However, the dependence of the microstructures, especially interfaces, on the properties of composites is not well understood yet. Moreover, the ceramic-metal interfaces play a crucial role in tailoring the composite properties.

In this paper we examine the alumina matrix composite with NiAl2O4 spinel phase and present the SEM and TEM studies of spinel distribution, size and crystallographic orientation. The composites were prepared by sintering Al2O3 and Ni powders below the melting point of Ni in argon. During the process of sintering the spinel phase appeared. It was not homogeneously distributed in the alumina matrix. The spinel phase areas were linked together and constituted an almost continuous form. We observed that the distribution and size of spinel influenced the fracture toughness of the composite.

Open access

E. Pieczyska, J. Dutkiewicz, F. Masdeu, J. Luckner and R. Maciak

Investigation of Thermomechanical Properties of Ferromagnetic NiFeGa Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to Pseudoelastic Compression Test

In the study stress-induced reversible phase transformation in NiFeGa magnetically controlled shape memory alloy subjected to pseudoelastic compression test was investigated. The specimen's mechanical characteristics and temperature changes related to the exothermic martensite transformation and endothermic reverse transformation were measured in contact-less way by using a fast and sensitive infrared camera (IR). It was found that the stress-induced phase transformation process occurs in this alloy in heterogeneous way, since the observed specimen's temperature distribution was not uniform. Stress-strain curves obtained for the first, as well as for the subsequent six loading-unloading compression cycles and their related temperature changes, elaborated as average from the specimen's surface, were analyzed. It was concluded that the stress and the temperature changes developing in the subsequent cycles depend on the applied test conditions, however the highest discrepancies were observed between the first and the second cycles of the compression loading.

Open access

M. Suśniak, J. Karwan-Baczewska, J. Dutkiewicz, M. Actis Grande and M. Rosso

Abstract

The present work investigates the possibility of using powder metallurgy processing for producing a metal matrix composite. Materials were prepared from AlSi5Cu2 chips with reinforcement of 10, 15, 20 wt. % silicon carbide. Aluminum alloy chips were milled with SiC powder in a high-energy ball mill by 40 hours. Mechanical alloying process lead to obtain an uniform distribution of hard SiC particles in the metallic matrix and refine the grain size. The consolidation of composite powders was performed by vacuum hot pressing at 450°C, under pressure of 600 MPa by 10 min. The results shows that the addition of SiC particles has a substantial influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composite powder as well as consolidated material. Hot pressing is an effective consolidation method which leads to obtain dense AlSi5Cu2/SiC composite with homogeneous structure and advanced mechanical properties.

Open access

M. Śusniak, J. Karwan-Baczewska, J. Dutkiewicz, M. Actis Grande and M. Rosso

The paper is focused on the processing of aluminum alloy chips using powder metallurgy. Chips obtained from recycled AlSi5Cu2 alloy were ball milled with the addition of silicon carbide powder with an average size of 2μm. Mechanical alloying process was employed to obtain homogeneous composite powder. The effect of processing time (0 - 40h) on the homogeneity of the system was evaluated, as well as a detailed study of the microstructure of AlSi5Cu2 aluminum chips and SiC particles during MA was carried out. Addition of silicon carbide (10, 20wt%) to recycled aluminium chips and application of MA lead to fragmentation of the homogeneous composite powder down to particle size of about 3μm and spheroidization. The addition of hard SiC particles caused reinforcement and reduced the milling time. Higher content of silicon carbide and longer processing time allowed to obtain AlSi5Cu2/SiC powders with microhardness ∽500HV0,025. The results of MA were investigated with SEM, EDS, LOM, XRD and showed that relatively homogeneous distribution of SiC reinforcements in the matrix as well as grain refinement of aluminum solid solution down to 50nm can be obtained after 40h of processing.

Open access

K. Bryła, J. Dutkiewicz, L.L. Rokhlin, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, K. Mroczka and P. Kurtyka

The influence of ageing and Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-2.5%Tb-0.78%Sm alloy has been examined. The microhardness changes during ageing at 200ºC show a slight increase. The aged microstructure at maximum hardness contains Mg12(Tb,Sm) - metastable β’ phase of size about 2-10 nm as dispersed precipitates. The orientation relationship between β’ phase and the matrix was found as follows:(0001)Mg || (1¯10)β′, [21¯10]Mg || [116]β′. The ECAP passes were performed by two procedures: “I” - four passes at 350ºC; “II” - one pass at 370ºC, second pass at 340ºC and third pass at 310ºC. The grain size was reduced about 200 times as a results of ECAP process according “I” and “II” procedure. The grain refinement by ECAP improves significantly the compression yield strength and hardness. The Hall-Petch relationship was confirmed basing on microhardness measurements and the grain size after ECAP. The Mg24(Tb,Sm)5 and Mg41(Sm,Tb)5 particles smaller than 150 nm are located mainly at grain and subgrain boundaries and they prevent grain growth during ECAP processing. The microstructure evolution during ECAP can be described as dynamic recovery and continuous and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization.

Open access

J. Suchanicz, U. Lewczuk, K. Konieczny and E.M. Dutkiewicz

Abstract

Lead-free (Na0.5Bi0.5)1-xBaxTiO3 (x = 0, 0.04 and 0.06) ceramics were fabricated by conventional solid phase sintering process. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that obtained specimens possess the perovskite structure. The microstructure study shows a dense structure, in good agreement with the relative density determined by the Archimedes method (above 95 %). Electric permittivity anomaly is shifted to low temperature after Ba doping of NBT. The pyroelectric and hysteresis loops measurements show that polarization and coercive field increases and decreases, respectively, after Ba doping of NBT. The obtained results are discussed in terms of ions/lattice imperfections, which create local electromechanical fields. The investigated ceramics are considered to be promising candidates for lead-free electronic materials.

Open access

K. Bryła, J. Dutkiewicz, L. Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.L. Rokhlin and P. Kurtyka

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of the number of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) passes on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The microstructure after two and four passes of ECAP at 423 and 523 K was investigated by means of optical and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical properties were carried out using Vickers microhardness measurements and compression test. The grain refinement in AZ31 alloy was obtained using ECAP routes down to 1,5 μm at 423 K. Processes of dynamic recrystallization during ECAP were observed. It was found that a gradual decrease of grain size occurs with the increasing of number of ECAP passes. The grain refinement increases mechanical properties at ambient temperature, such as Vickers microhardness and compression strength proportionally to d-0.5.